7.3 The eukaryotic chromosome

Whilst the bulk of eukaryotic DNA is packaged by proteins different from those in the eubacterial chromosome, the principles of bending DNA and neutralising the negative charges in its backbone are shared. Eukaryotic cells have considerably larger genomes than do prokaryotes (in most cases over 1000 times the size of the E. coli genome – see Author(s): The Open University

8.2 Chromosome scaffolds

Most of the chromosomal DNA chains within the interphase nucleus are believed to be held on a scaffold or backbone structure made from various proteins, with loops of between 20 and 200 kb extruding from attachment sites. This chromosome structure is shown schematically in Figure 40. The scaffold, as well as permitting further compaction, serves to bring the DNA together in organised regions. There are many different protein components of these scaffolds, amongst them DNA topoisomerases.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2013 The Open University

Indigenous Peoples' Legal Water Forum 2009 Session 9
A forum to explore the rights of Indigenous peoples to be involved in the governance of freshwater. Law Professor Lee Godden and Director of the Centre for Resources, Energy and Environmental law, University of Melbourne, Australia, "Indigenous Property Rights to Water: Environmental Flows, Cultural Values and Tradeable Property Rights in Australia".
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand the legal framework of the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 and Regulations associated with it

  • understand the employers’, employees’ and visitors’ duties

  • evaluate hazards and risks in order to carry out a risk assessment

  • understand the legal requirement to report any accident or dangerous occurrence

  • develop risk assessments for scientific laborat
    Author(s): The Open University

    License information
    Related content

    Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Efficient Computer-User Interface in Electronic Mail Systems
This research explores the question of improving user- computer interface. The approach is one of observing and codifying various parameters that influence the efficiency of interface in the context of electronic mail tasks. In the paper the authors observe 'expert' and 'regular' users of a mail system and analyze the sources of efficiency. It is clear that experts use a different, more specialized, set of commands in performing standard mail tasks. While experts perform these tasks with fewer e
Author(s): Akin, Omer

License information
Related content

Rights not set

What is a Blizzard?
This term gets tossed around at least once every winter for the big snowstorm of the season, and most of the time - it's WRONG!  Blizzards have a very specific, difficult set of criteria to meet before they can be categorized as this type of winter storm - and it has more to do with wind and visibility than snow. (01:55)
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

Cogs v2
Cogs v2 - John Savage Keywords:UNSPECIFIED
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

Learning Outcomes

After studying this course you should be able to:

  • understand what writing an assignment involves;
  • identify their strength and weaknesses;
  • consider the functions of essays and reports;
  • develop writing skills, whatever the stage they have reached.

Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2013 The Open University

Cruz in 2016 U.S. presidential race
Republican Texas Senator Ted Cruz confirms plans to run for president in the 2016 election. Paul Chapman reports. Subscribe: http://smarturl.it/reuterssubscribe More updates and breaking news: http://smarturl.it/BreakingNews Reuters tells the world's stories like no one else. As the largest international multimedia news provider, Reuters provides coverage around the globe and across topics including business, financial, national, and international news. For over 160 years, Reuters has maintain
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

1.8 Geological fieldwork

Although much can be learned from samples of rocks in the laboratory or at home, the ‘natural habitat’ of rocks is outdoors. Here the distribution and layout of different rocks is visible wherever rocks are exposed in places such as stream beds, cliffs, rocky shorelines, quarries, or road cuttings. The exposed rocks can be studied in just the same detail as individual laboratory samples, and geological fieldwork allows the size and extent of each rock unit to be seen and the relationships
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

2.2 Why study ecology?

These days, bird watching is a popular leisure activity and in the past so were collecting insects, wild flowers and birds’ eggs (although such activities are not now recommended – indeed, they are often illegal – because of the potential damage they cause to flora and fauna). Some amateurs are or were truly experts in their fields. In fact, much of the original identification of the British flora and fauna was done by amateur naturalists. Many a Victorian vicar or other self-taught nat
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

1.1.1 Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is used as the basis for the carbon footprint because it is by far the main contributor to the enhanced greenhouse effect from human activity (mainly burning fossil fuels, clearing forests and making cement). So, often only CO2 is counted in the carbon footprint. However, for a more complete measure of the carbon footprint the other human-generated greenhouse gases are converted into a CO2 equivalent (in kilograms or tonnes CO2e
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

5 Conclusion

International economic relationships are constituted in large part by international trade and investment. I have argued that the current trade regime, apparently one of voluntary adherence to negotiated rule-making, is actually systematically weighted against the needs of developing countries. This asymmetry is rooted in a context where rich countries are eager to prescribe free trade for others but reluctant to impose it on themselves and able to avoid doing so. Its consequences are exacerba
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2013 The Open University

1.2 Resource availability and species diversity

A wide range of ecosystems has been studied in terms of their species diversity and the availability of resources. Each produces an individual relationship between these two variables, but a common pattern emerges from most of them, especially when plant diversity is being considered. This pattern has been named the humped-back relationship and suggests diversity is greatest at intermediate levels of productivity in many systems (Figure 1.5).

Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

An Interactive Database (HizmO) for Reconstructing Lost Modernist Izmir:
The research project in progress in the School of Architecture at the Izmir Institute of Technology includes documentation and reconstruction (by 3D modeling in electronic media) of damaged and lost early modern buildings in the Izmir region. The research aims to analyze the differences between Izmir modern buildings and Universal Modern Style, and preserve information on architectural heritage for future generations. The project is at the phase of developing an interactive web-based historical
Author(s): Akgun, Yenal

License information
Related content

Rights not set

3.2 The anatomy of the cochlea

The cochlea has a spiral shape resembling the shell of a snail (Figure 4a). You can approximate the structure of the cochlea by wrapping a drinking straw 2.5 times around the tip of a sharpened pencil. The hollow tube, represented by the straw, has walls made of bone and the central pillar of the cochlea, represented by the pencil, is a conical
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Conclusion

This free course, Systems diagramming, provided an introduction to studying Computing & IT. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance, and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of level 1 study in C
Author(s): The Open University

1.3 Inadequate intake

In the developed world inadequate intake of food, at least in terms of energy, is not common. Nevertheless, in many parts of the world starvation is a huge issue, and it is estimated that tens of millions of people face starvation, and well over 5 million, mainly children, die each year from inadequate nutrient intake. Importantly, lack of particular nutrients impairs our ability to carry out many functions.

Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

"Tess's Tree"--Meet Illustrator Peter H. Reynolds
Watch illustrator Peter H. Reynolds talk about his inspiration for Tess and see how he creates her. Tess loved her tree. She liked to swing on it and sit in its shade and catch its leaves in the fall.When Tess's tree has to come down, Tess is very sad . . . until she finds a way to gather friends and family and celebrate her tree's remarkable life.This is a book for sharing with people you love, among good friends, or on a quiet day under a favorite tree. This is a great reso
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

Voyage dans les nanosciences et l'art contemporain / Niki Baccile

Voyage dans les nanosciences et l'art contemporain / Niki Baccile. In "Images & mirages @ nanosciences", colloque international organisé par le Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Solidarités, Sociétés, Territoires (LISST) de l'Université Toulouse II-Le Mirail, le Centre d'Élaboration de Matériaux et d'Études Structurales (CEMES) rattaché à l'Institut de Physique du CNRS et le Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de Nano-Objets (LPCNO) de l'INSA Toulouse. Université
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content