2.5.2 Quantum fields and unification

From its inception, quantum physics was concerned not just with particles such as electrons, but also with light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation. In 1900 Planck discovered the quantum in the transfer of energy from matter to radiation, and in 1905, Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect assumed that the transfer of energy from radiation to matter occurred in a similarly quantised fashion. It is therefore hardly surprising that the development of quantum mechanics was
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6 Summary

There are two areas of general concern regarding the introduction of GM crops and food: the possible impacts on human health and on the environment. For some critics of GM technology, this reflects a feeling that GM technology is unnatural, as compared to conventional crop breeding. However, many techniques used in conventional crop development, for example, intergeneric and interspecific crossing, haploid breeding and mutation breeding, are highly technological and seem very far from being n
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5.2.2 The GM Economics Review

Scientists, as might be expected, played a limited role in this review, which was produced by a team dominated by economists. The review sought to evaluate the costs and benefits of commercial development of the GM crops available at that time in the UK. They also looked at possible developments over a 10–15-year period. The members of the team were obliged to recognise the limited ‘evidence-base’ available on the costs and benefits of GM crops, covering only a short period oftime.

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5.2.1 The GM Science Review

The review was undertaken by the GM Science Review Panel, chaired by the Government's Chief Scientific Adviser, Sir David King. Its role was to assess the evidence available in the peer-reviewed scientific literature. The panel produced two reports, the first in July 2003 and the second in January 2004. The main conclusions of these reports are listed below.

  • The risk to human health is very low.

  • There is little likelihood of such plan
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2.3 The effect of interstellar gas

You have seen that the ISM has been studied through the radiation that the gas and dust absorb, emit and scatter. Figure 15 summarizes the differences between these three phenomena.

Let's first consider the three phenomena in relation to the gas. The gas scatters very little light and so we need only consider absorption and emission of radiation. You have already met absorption and emission of photons by atoms (which we shall call photoexcitation and photoemissio
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2.2 Interstellar space is not empty

The difference between the apparent brightness of a star (as measured by its apparent magnitude), and its luminosity (represented by its absolute magnitude) is defined by the distance of the star. We can explicitly state this relationship as in Equations B and C:

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1.5 Star clusters and stellar evolution

Detailed observations of star clusters suggest that they occur because the stars in them form at about the same time. Moreover, the compositions of the stars are similar. Isolated stars (including isolated binary stars) result from the later partial or complete dispersal of a cluster.

The crucial points for us here are that all the stars in a cluster formed at about the same time, and all have similar compositions.

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1.2 The main classes of stars

The main classes of stars are shown in Figure 5.

The main sequence is ‘main’ in the sense that about 90% of stars fall into this class, and ‘sequence’ in the sense that it is a long, thin region that trails across the H–R diagram, covering a very wide range of temperatures and luminosities. The Sun i
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1.1 Constructing the H–R diagram

Three properties which are suitable for comparing stars are temperature, luminosity and radius. However, we don't need all three.

Question 1

Why not?


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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • define and use, or recognise definitions and applications of, each of the bold terms;

  • provide examples that show there is a continuum of desert climates and environments that link to diversity of flora and fauna;

  • explain, with examples, the thermoregulatory strategies of evaders, evaporators and endurers, and interpret relevant data;

  • describe the importance of integration of behavi
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Introduction

This unit is the first in a series of three on Animals at the extreme. It is concerned with the integration of behaviour anatomy, physiology and biochemistry in diverse vertebrates that live in deserts. Once you have completed this unit, you will be all the more able to appreciate the linked units that follow, Animals at the extreme: hibernation and torpor and Animals at the extreme: the polar environment. These units build on and develop some of the science you will stud
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6.7 Sleep, the brain and hibernation

There has been a popular misconception that hibernating animals are asleep when dormant, and that arousal during or at the end of hibernation involves waking analogous to that following deep sleep. Sleep in homeothermic animals can be divided into several phases, each with distinct patterns of electrical activity in the brain, as measured by an electroencephalogram (EEG). The passage into sleep is a transition from wakefulness into the stage called slow-wave sleep (SWS). SWS, and its c
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6.3 Metabolic regulation and the midbrain

As you found in the last section, the physiological evidence points to the likelihood that different components of regulation may be regulated separately. The hypothalamus, which appears to be central to the depression and recovery of body temperature during entry to torpor and arousal, is not the only player in the control of metabolic processes underlying non-behavioural thermogenesis. In many respects, the initiation of thermogenesis is the prime event in the reactivation of a cold body: t
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4.2 Arresting protein synthesis

The regulation of T b in hibernators has traditionally been viewed as the fundamental physiological process in hibernation. But recently, questions have been raised about whether thermal changes initiate or simply accompany metabolic depression. Is the metabolic inactivity of animal tissues during bouts of torpor or in hibernation, the cause or the result of hypothermia? A common-sense view is that temperature directly influences metabolism by regulating enzyme activity. Evi
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3.5.1 Final arousal

Emergence can be viewed as the final step in the series of periodic arousals. Instead of re-entering hibernation, the animal maintains the euthermic condition. The cue for maintaining this final arousal is probably not temperature, as some species emerge when T a is well below zero. It is also difficult to see how arousal could be affected by daylength, since the hibernating animal is usually underground in a cavity or a burrow. Perhaps fat or food stores reach a minimum lev
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3.3 Maintenance

Entering hibernation is not a passive process in response to falling T a. Nor is deep hibernation a passive process or indeed a uniform state. Figure 13 shows the pattern of hibernation (as measured by the heart rate) of an arctic marmot (Marmota caligata) kept in the laboratory at a T a of 10° C for 18 days in February. Despite being inactive, every one or two days the heart rate rises abruptly, remains high for a number of days, and then falls ag
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1 Hibernation and torpor: An introduction

This unit examines hibernation, a special form of adaptation that animals can make to the ecological demands of remaining in a chosen habitat in winter. Hibernation is a state which enables energy-efficient survival when ambient temperatures are so low that foraging or simply maintaining normal core body temperature and basal metabolic rate are either energetically too costly or impossible.

Polar endotherms can maintain a high T b even when living actively at sub-zero
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

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All other materials included in this unit are derived from content originated at the Open University.
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1.1.1 The chemical structure of DNA

This unit explores the chemical nature of the genome. Genomes are composed of DNA, and a knowledge of the structure of DNA is essential to understand how it can function as hereditary material. DNA is remarkable, breathtakingly simple in its structure yet capable of directing all the living processes in a cell, the production of new cells and the development of a fertilized egg to an individual adult.

DNA illustrates beautifully the precise relationship between molecular structure and b
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should understand:

  • the basic composition and structure of DNA;

  • what is meant by complementary DNA base pairing;

  • how base pairing allows a mechanism for DNA replication;

  • the number of DNA molecules within a chromosome.


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