2.5 Why intentions?

Most of the rest of Grice's paper is dedicated to spelling out a way of identifying the meaning of an individual utterance ‘on an occasion’ with the content of the utterer's intentions (Step One). The hard task he faces is to say what type of intention creates meaning. If someone shouts ‘I saw a film last night’ extremely loudly at their brother with the intention of making this brother fall off his bike, this ‘utterance’ (if that is the right word) does not thereby mean fall o
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References

Brown, A. (1995) Organisational Culture, London, Pitman.
Crace, J. (2000) ‘Feel at home with a job abroad’, Guardian, 14 October.
Drennan, D. (1992) Transforming Company Culture, London, McGraw Hill.
Hofstede, G. (1980) Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work Related Values, London,
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3.3 Deciding what to ask for

What you ask for will very largely determine what you receive. You are therefore faced with a crucial but complicated set of judgements and choices in translating your overall requirements into suitable ‘ask size’ chunks. Your global requirement for support has to be refined into a range of specific requests which it will be feasible and appropriate to direct to the particular cohort(s) of donors and supporters you seek to involve.

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4.2 Problem solving

Involving the whole team in the problem-solving process shows that you value their experience and knowledge in devising a solution. It may also be appropriate to involve other stakeholders and/or the project sponsor. If problems are solved jointly there is usually wider ownership of the solutions and their implications; and, if more resources are agreed to be needed or new procedures are put into place, there is also likely to be more support.

Problem solving can be broken down into a s
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Introduction

This unit looks at equity finance – the range of equity instruments and markets available to a company. First, we look at private equity and the role of venture capital companies that provide such finance. We look at the mechanics of an initial public offering (IPO) and at recent cases of companies ‘listing’ on a stock exchange for the first time. We go on to explore certain important strategic issues for a business when considering equity finance:

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4.1 Introduction

A psychological perspective does not start from the assumption that people are fundamentally irrational. Rather, it emphasises a different logic: a logic that meets the challenges we have evolved to face (Calne, 1999). For much of our evolution we have faced an environment with major differences from the modern business world. We have developed a range of cognitive mechanisms to cope with adverse environments in which resources are scarce. These include a range of simplifying and confidence-s
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4 Key points

The important points this unit has covered include:

  • Defining the entrepreneur in terms of economic function and role.

  • Identifying the key characteristics of successful entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial firms.

  • Considering the role of entrepreneurial motivation in decision making and business behaviour.

  • Identifying leadership and management styles appropriate to an entrepreneurial firm


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1.1 Introduction

'The world of volunteering has today reported a dramatic increase in the number of people looking for opportunities to volunteer. Leaders of national volunteering organisations attribute this to a rise in unemployment across the UK.'

Volunteer England, 21 April 2009
<
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2.3 The challenge of terminology

Probably the biggest challenge that you will encounter is acquiring a command of the terms and concepts of this field of knowledge – even the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘science’ can seem off-putting. In your reading around this unit you will come into contact with a wide range of ‘-isms’, ‘-sophies’ and ‘-ologies’, some of which you may have encountered in previous studies. Actually, these terms are best seen as shorthand for groups of assumptions and ideas about the way th
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References

Audit Commission (2000) Another Country. Implementing Dispersal Under the Immigration and Asylum Act 1999, London, Audit Commission for Local Authorities and the National Health Service in England and Wales.
Bloch, A. (2002) Refugees' Opportunities and Barriers in Employment and Training, Department of Work and Pensions Research Report No.179, Norwich, HMSO.
Bl
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10.3 Further study

The resources within this unit have covered a wide range of subject areas including education, environment, technology, history, law, literature, politics, social care and social sciences.

If you are interested in becoming an Open University student you might want to visit New to the OU.

Below is a list of the Open University courses that have been drawn upon to create the OpenLearn Scotland collection.

  • What is poetry? is from A175
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • understand what writing an assignment involves;

  • identify their strength and weaknesses;

  • consider the functions of essays and reports;

  • develop writing skills, whatever the stage they have reached.


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Introduction

Social scientists collect evidence to support their claims and theories in different ways. Such evidence is crucial to the practice of social science and to the production of social scientific knowledge.

You may be aware of the idea of active reading, which is about reading with the aim of understanding and grasping something: a definition, an argument, a piece of evidence. What that suggests is that active reading is about reading and thinking at the same time. In
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3.2 Maps and the circuit of knowledge

Activity 3

The circuit of knowledge starts with a question or questions. For example, look at Figure 1 and Map 3, A and B. Figure 1 shows how the circuit of knowledge can be used to investigate a question, using Map 3, A and B, as e
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Introduction

This unit looks at the prevalence of maps in everyday life, their uses and their importance. From mental maps to public transport and street maps it moves on to historical and history-making maps. Along with assessing the political importance of some maps it examines how we read maps and looks at how to evaluate the information contained within them. Although maps might seem to be objective and factual the unit looks at the values embedded in both maps themselves and our perceptions of them.<
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References

Claiborne, R. (1983; this edition 1990) The Life and Times of the English Language: The History of our Marvellous Native Tongue, Bloomsbury.
Tolkien, J. R. R. (1954; this edition 2003) The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers, HarperCollins.
Bodmer, F. (1943) The Loom of Language, London: Allen & Unwin (republished Merlin Press, 1981).
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1.1 Autour d'Avignon

In this session, you and and your friend Christine are exploring Avignon. You look at the town plan opposite the station, and Christine stops a passer-by to ask for help.

Key Learning Points

  • Asking for and understanding directions

  • Using être

  • Making liaisons

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1.5 Moving forward?

So far you have read about the development of consultation with service users. Why, then, do service users and their organisations experience a struggle to be heard? What barriers are they encountering?

Service providers may structure consultation around service needs rather than service users' interests. For example, consultation at the planning, delivery and monitoring stages of a new day centre might be informative to service providers as well as a good example of service user involv
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Introduction

The current political agenda requires service users' views to be incorporated into the design of health and social care services (Department of Health, 2006). Services are assessed by the quality of the outcomes they provide for users. Frontline managers are responsible for gathering service user views on their needs. Whose views should be taken into account? How do managers gather views? This unit helps you consider ways of getting feedback from service users, and shows the inclusive approac
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