2.2 Using A. tumefaciens to genetically modify plant cells

Genetic engineers have capitalised on the fact that part of the DNA from the Ti plasmid of A. tumefaciens is integrated into the plant genome during the infection process. Ti plasmids can be isolated and a foreign gene spliced in at an appropriate point, making it possible to transfer the novel gene into the plant.

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1.3.9 Summary

There is a lot of information available on maths and statistics via the internet. Try the activity below to start exploring what is available.

Activity 1

References

Colburn, T., Dumanoski, D. and Myers, J. P. (1996) Our Stolen Future, Little, Brown and Co.

Kishi, M., Hirschorn, N., Djajadisastra, M., Saterlee, L. N., Strowman, S. and Dilts, R. (1995) Relationship of pesticide spraying to signs and symptoms in Indonesian farmers, Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health, 21 (2), pp. 124– 33.

Wilson, E. O. (1992) The Diversity of Life, The Bellknap Press of the Harvard University Press, Cambridge, USA.


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1.2 Developing countries

Question

Which countries in the world are classified as ‘developing countries’?

There are various definitions of ‘developing countries’, none entirely satisfactory. The WTO allows members to class
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7.3 Running the models forward

What happens when the models are run forward? It depends upon the models used and the scenarios they are asked to run. It seems almost certain, however, that there will be increases in the global mean surface temperature, to the order of +1.5 to +4.5 °C (– possibly more, according to some models and scenarios.

These changes are predicted to be associated with increases in sea level, changes to weather conditions (e.g. more regular and violent winter storms in the UK) and changes to t
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The Alphabet Song for Sign Language
This song teaches the ABCs for Sign Language. Through music you can learn how to sign. Each letter is shown next to a hand modeling how to sign it. It is very clear, slow-placed, and well presented. (02:29)
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1.4 Stellar masses and stellar evolution

Measured masses range from about 0.08M to about 50M, a large range, with the Sun again showing up as an average sort of star. At the upper end we have some true monsters, but even at the lower end we have bodies that are still far more massive than the planets.

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Singapore icon 'critical'
The 91-year-old man seen as the founder of modern day Singapore is critically ill in hospital. Paul Chapman reports. Subscribe: http://smarturl.it/reuterssubscribe More updates and breaking news: http://smarturl.it/BreakingNews Reuters tells the world's stories like no one else. As the largest international multimedia news provider, Reuters provides coverage around the globe and across topics including business, financial, national, and international news. For over 160 years, Reuters has maint
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Try some yourself

Activity 21

Without using your calculator solve the following calculations.

  • (a) 3 + 5 × 2 = ?

  • (b) 12 − 6 + 6 = ?

  • (c) 6 + (5 +
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2.2.3 The effect of people and places

The footprints in the above Carbon Trust and National Statistics studies are for an average UK citizen. But footprints vary for different individuals and households. For example, another study showed that, on average, people aged 50 to 64 have heavier footprints than all other UK age groups, mainly due to their high spending on car and air travel, eating and drinking, and medical and financial services (Haq et al., 2007, p. 7).

The National Statistics study showed that the UK regions wi
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Conclusion

Hydropower was the earliest means of commercial electricity generation, and currently dominates alternative electricity supply. However, its global capacity for large-scale exploitation is less than six times that currently installed.

Growth of hydropower is slow and its contribution to global electricity supply is falling. Both are due to economic factors, the slow pace of large-scale project construction, the remoteness of high-potential sites, and increasing resistance to the social
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About Inside Outlook with Gavin P. Sullivan
UWTV presents a new current affairs show, Inside Outlook, featuring in-depth discussion about the important issues facing the Pacific Northwest region. In each episode, host Gavin P. Sullivan moderates a panel of community leaders, educators and activists. In this interview, Inside Outlook host, Gavin P. Sullivan, speaks to why he believes that civil discourse is important when discussing controversial issues, the unique culture of the Pacific Northwest and what he hopes to achieve with the sho
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Introduction to the Environmental Change Institute
Introduction to research groups and activities at the Environmental Change Institute.
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2.6.1 Weighing up the evidence: the full cast of suspects

Figure 36 (again adapted from the TAR) takes your thoughts on Question 11 on a stage. It gives estimates of the cumulative effect since pre-industrial times of the various climate change agents, with the contributions expressed in terms of radiative forcing. Note that the figure also includes yet another device for communicating the IPCC's confidence in a particular finding - an indication of the 'level of scientific understanding' that accompanies each estimate. This reflects the authors' su
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The sound of silence
Why does each musical instrument have its own unique sound? What exactly distinguishes a guitar from a fiddle? Follow the story as we find out exactly how a musical note is produced and how to create the sound of silence. This material forms part of The Open University course MU120 Open mathematics. The iTunes U team.
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The iTunes U team

1.2.4 Surgical methods of contraception

Surgical methods are by and large the most drastic and irreversible ones, ranging from castration to relatively untraumatic tube-tying. Because of the psychological and physiological side-effects, surgical removal of the testes or ovaries is not generally carried out for contraceptive reasons alone, although these operations may be carried out for other reasons, such as the presence of malignant tumours. Any kind of surgical sterilization can be physiologically traumatic for a woman, as it in
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3.3 Optical amplifiers

Figure 22 shows in outline one possible structure for an Erbium-doped fibre amplifier (EDFA).

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Boscombe Pier entrance DP162125

*

Neck Building, Boscombe Pier, Undercliff Drive, Bournemouth Dorset. General view of pier entrance and canopy.
© Historic England


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Introduction

This unit examines how self-assembled structures based on lipids and proteins provide a framework for cellular processes.

This unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course Engineering small worlds: micro and nano technologies (T356).


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2 Altering the environment

Later in this course we will be considering a number of ways in which humans alter their environment.

Question 3

In what ways do you think we are altering the environment?


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