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2.1.1 Loss of submerged plant communities

One of the symptoms of extreme eutrophication in shallow waters is often a substantial or complete loss of submerged plant communities and their replacement by dense phytoplankton communities (algal blooms). This results not only in the loss of characteristic plant species (macrophytes) but also in reduced habitat structure within the water body. Submerged plants provide refuges for invertebrate species against predation by fish. Some of these invertebrate species are phytoplankton-grazers an
Author(s): The Open University

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2.1 Introduction

In all the analysis of stellar properties discussed so far we have made an implicit assumption - that light emitted by a star is not changed between its emission and its arrival outside the Earth's atmosphere, except by the inverse square law (i.e. it is reduced by a factor of d2, where d is the distance to the star) and by the Doppler effect. However, this may not be the case.

Author(s): The Open University

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1.6 The human impact on the atmosphere: the coming of the industrial age

There is no doubt that CO2 is accumulating in the atmosphere. The record from Mauna Loa charts a continuing rise in CO2 concentration since measurements began in 1958, when the level was 315 ppm; the value had reached about 370 ppm by the end of the 20th century, and hit more than 378 ppm in 2004. Important as changes in atmospheric CO2 undoubtedly are (see below), we need to be aware that this is not the whole story of human-induced greenhouse forcing. In par
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5.2 Air pollution

There are many popular beliefs about air quality and health. As a child you might have been exhorted to, ‘go out and play in the nice fresh air’. Mountain air is often regarded as being particularly beneficial, especially for those who are recuperating from or suffering some types of respiratory diseases.

Ques
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14.23 Government Regulation of Industry (MIT)
The objective of this course is to introduce you to the role of government in markets where competitive equilibria “fail.” In this course we will emphasize the importance of market structure and industrial performance, including the strategic interaction of firms. We will examine the behavior of individual markets in some detail, focusing on cost analysis, the determinants of market demand, investment behavior, market power, and the implications of government regulatory behavior. The
Author(s): Pollitt, Michael

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2 Your own mathematics

It is crucial to remember that you are a learner of mathematics as well as a teacher. In this course you will be asked to undertake some mathematical tasks. The aim of these tasks is not to improve your mathematics, but to give you experience of doing mathematics for yourself—experience that you can reflect upon subsequently. The reflection is used to develop your awareness of the ways that learners deal with mathematical tasks, and how learners' mathematical thinking is influenced by the w
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Advanced Organic Reactions & Syntheses
医薬品や機能性材料等の開発において必須である複素環化合物の性質、合成、および応用について、有機元素化学からの視点を併せながら講述する。
Author(s): TOKYO TECH OCW

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References

Association of Essex Councils Steering Group (1999) Essex Biodiversity Action Plan, London, HMSO.
Baring-Gould, S. (1983) Mehalah, Woodbridge, The Boydell Press (first published 1880).
Blackmore, R. and Barratt, R. (2003) ‘Dynamic atmosphere: changing climate and air quality’ in Morris, R.M. et al. (eds).

Author(s): The Open University

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The Louisiana Purchase
In 1803 - 20 years after the end of the Revolutionary War - Thomas Jefferson on behalf of the United States pays a total of $15 million dollars for French Lousiana Territory. 14 current U.S. states are comprised of the area purchased from Napoleon. (2min)
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The role of awareness in the teaching and learning of literacy and numeracy at key stage 2
Our starting point is that explicit understanding of key concepts will promote children’s progress in literacy. We argue that this depends on their teachers having explicit knowledge of the concepts which is translated into teaching practice. These ideas are explored in the context of the teaching of morphology and reading comprehension in 50 London primary schools. In our first study, teacher’s explicit awareness and practice of morphology and reading comprehension strategies are documented
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Acknowledgements

Cover image: Paul Wordingham in Flickr made available under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence.

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is
Author(s): The Open University

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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand some current issues in mathematics education, such as the relationship of mathematics content to mathematics processes

  • understand a variety of approaches to the teaching of mathematics such as 'do-talk-record'

  • approach mathematical problems and tasks in a flexible way.


Author(s): The Open University

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Ideas for Chemistry FM radio programmes for science week 2010
Nathan Gray, an MA student studying Science and Environmental Journalism, is funded by one of our project bursaries to help develop the radio programmes for Science Week. He’s decided upon five programmes and has drafted up the following for comment among the project team. It’s still under discussion but provides a good idea of what […]
Author(s): Joss Winn

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Water, water everywhere; nor any drop to drink?
"The Global Water Initiative: Implications of Climate Change and Variability on African Water Resources", a three day conference co-ordinated by Judge Business School's Cambridge Centre for Energy Studies and held at Downing College, University of Cambridge, brought together academics from all over the World to openly debate these truly daunting questions of environmental sustainability in the face of climate change.
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5.1 Phase and phase difference

In this section I am considering sine waves that have the same frequency, but are out of step with each other.

Suppose we have two detectors at fixed points, A and B. At this moment in time A is in a high pressure region and B in a low pressure region. If we were to look again shortly later B would now in a high pressure region and A in a low pressure region. The pressures at A and B would be out of step with each other. The pressure variation at B is not in phase with that at A. The ex
Author(s): The Open University

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1.060 Engineering Mechanics II (MIT)
This subject provides an introduction to fluid mechanics. Students are introduced to and become familiar with all relevant physical properties and fundamental laws governing the behavior of fluids and learn how to solve a variety of problems of interest to civil and environmental engineers. While there is a chance to put skills from calculus and differential equations to use in this subject, the emphasis is on physical understanding of why a fluid behaves the way it does. The aim is to make the
Author(s): Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David,Madsen, Ole

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References

Cooper, Lord (1991) Scottish Legal Tradition, Edinburgh, Saltire Society.

Robertson, G. (1998) The Justice Game, London, Chatto & Windus.

Scottish Case Digests ‘Adams and others v The Scottish Ministers’, hearing date 28 May 2004 taken from LexisNexis Legal Database.

Walker, D. (1981) The Scottish Legal System, 5th edn, Edinburgh, W Green & Son Ltd.


Author(s): The Open University

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Fundamentals of accounting
Learn about the essential numerical and double-entry skills required for accounting. This free course, Fundamentals of accounting, will explain the fundamental purpose and role of accounting as well as the double-entry rules that are the foundation of all financial records and reports in any modern business. First published on Tue, 24 Apr 2018 as Author(s): Creator not set

6.1 Firing-rate hypothesis

Information about stimulus intensity is encoded in two ways: the firing rates of neurons and the number of active neurons.

Intensity is assumed to be encoded by an increase in discharge rate of action potentials within the auditory system. As the stimulus gets more intense, the basilar membrane vibrates at a greater amplitude causing the membrane potential of activated hair cells to be more depolarised and this causes the nerve fibres that synapse onto the hair cells to fire at a greate
Author(s): The Open University

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