1.4 Human-induced eutrophication

While eutrophication does occur independently of human activity, increasingly it is caused, or amplified, by human inputs. Human activities are causing pollution of water bodies and soils to occur to an unprecedented degree, resulting in an array of symptomatic changes in water quality and in species and communities of associated organisms. In 1848 W. Gardiner produced a flora of Forfarshire, in which he described the plants growing in Balgavies Loch. He talked of 'potamogetons [pondweeds] fl
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First-order differential equations

This unit introduces the topic of differential equations. The subject is developed without assuming that you have come across it before, but it is taken for granted that you have a basic grounding in calculus. In particular, you will need to have a good grasp of the basic rules for differentiation and integration.

This study unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course MST209 Mathematical methods and models, which is no longer taught by the University. If you want t
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2.2.1 Finance

Every time you use a debit or credit card the shop till uses a terminal connected to other computers via a network. Your identification details are automatically transferred from your card to your bank or credit card company for verification, and your balance adjusted accordingly. This also applies if you are shopping online, or over the phone (when booking a cinema ticket, for example). ATMs (also known as cashpoints) allow you to check your bank balance or withdraw cash from wherever you ar
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Introduction

This free course, An introduction to law in contemporary Scotland, will introduce you to the law making process in Scotland. The Scottish legal system and many aspects of the law in Scotland are different from those in England and Wales. The law of Scotland has a history and roots, which are distinct from that of England and Wales. Despite forming a union with England and Wales at various points throughout that history, Scotland has retained a separate legal system.

Like the law
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4.2 'Biological control'

We are also guilty of importing exotic species, some of which, like the rhododendron (imported from Asia to Europe), have run riot in the absence of natural predators or primary consumers, and so have tended to out-compete native plants. Sometimes introductions have been accidental; rats and many disease-causing organisms have spread around the world via relatively modern transportation such as sailing ships. However, deliberate introductions, such as the rhododendron, have been made with wor
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1.2.3 Basic principles

Whatever resource you choose to use to find information on the internet, many of the same principles apply. Each source that you use will probably look quite different from the one you tried before, but you'll notice that there are always features that are similar – a box to type your search terms in, for instance, or a clickable help button. Different resources refer to the same functions using different terminology, but the principles behind them are exactly the same. The trick is to chec
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3.3 Green governance needs citizens

The term ‘good governance’ implies that ‘ordinary people’ will be involved in deciding what to do, trying to make it happen, and deciding whether it has happened (debate, implementation, monitoring). But what, in practical terms, might citizen involvement in the governance of an issue such as climate change mean? Citizen involvement in decisions and actions can mean anything from filling in a questionnaire to joining a demonstration to sitting on a committee. One helpful approach is A
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Introduction

This unit is designed to introduce you to the concepts of health and safety within a science laboratory or in the field. There are a number of legal requirements that must be adhered to before carrying out work in a laboratory. One of these is the necessity to carry out risk assessments on the chemical and biological agents that are to be used as part of your practical work activities. As part of this process you may be required to think about minimising exposure of yourself and colleagues to
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Faculty of Law: F.W. Guest Memorial Lecture 2008 – ‘Grave Injustice’, ‘despotic privilege’
Professor J Stuart Anderson, Faculty of Law, Otago, delivers the 2008 F.W. Guest Memorial Lecture – ‘Grave Injustice,’ ‘despotic privilege’: the insecure foundations of crown liability for torts in New Zealand. 6 August 2008
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4.3 Iron storage

In humans, iron is stored mainly in the bone marrow, spleen and liver. About 10 per cent of all the iron in the body is in storage. Two proteins are involved in iron storage; these are called ferritin and haemosiderin (they also occur in other organisms). We shall only study the better characterised (and simpler!) ferritin.

Each ferritin molecule can store iron up to about 20 per cent of its total mass. This is a very high percentage, considering that less than 0.2 per cen
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Indigenous Peoples' Legal Water Forum 2009 Session 4
A forum to explore the rights of Indigenous peoples to be involved in the governance of freshwater. Tom Bennion, barrister sole, editor of Maori Law Review, and specialist in environmental law and Treaty of Waitangi claims, "Maori rights to water: an historical overview".
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4.2 Carbon reduction targets

Let's now look at carbon footprint reduction targets in a bit more detail.

The first international agreement to set carbon reduction targets was the 1997 United Nations Kyoto Protocol, which requires developed countries to reduce their human-generated greenhouse gas emissions by an average of just over 5% on 1990 levels by 2008 to 2012. By the time the treaty came into force in 2005, only the USA and Australia had refused to sign. (A new Australian government finally signe
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Volume | Measurement | Pre-Algebra | Khan Academy
Volume is a measurement in the 3rd dimension. This means that it not only has width and height, but it has depth as well. Let's watch this video in which we get a great explanation of how we measure volume. (07:50)

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Water supply and treatment in the UK
Have you thought about the journey water makes to get to your taps? What processes has it undergone to make it safe to drink? The tracks in this album examine issues of water supply and treatment in the UK, where each of us uses approximately 150 litres a day! We hear from different parties involved in water management including the bodies representing the consumer, the environment, and the suppliers. The scope of the discussion ranges from wastage and emergency treatment to recycling and efflue
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

2.4.3 Polarization mode distortion

Because light is an electromagnetic wave, it has a ‘state of polarization’, which, for light in single-mode fibre, is at right angles to the path of the fibre. If you've not encountered electromagnetic waves before, all you need to appreciate is that as light travels down the fibre the electromagnetic field has an orientation across the fibre (Author(s): The Open University

4.1 Distributive and commutative justice

Justice is commonly thought to have two applications which Aristotle distinguished as ‘distributive’ and ‘commutative’ justice. The first, distributive justice, is concerned with the distributions of things (rights, goods, services and so on) among a class of individuals.

What is distributive justice?

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2 The global water cycle

The flow of water through the land, the atmosphere and the sea is shown in Figure 3.

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3.1 Insect resistance

We will now look briefly at the science underlying the traits introduced into commercial crops, which you explored in Activity 1; a useful place to start is by considering how the property of resistance to insects is acquired by crops.

Insect damage causes huge losses of agricultural crops each year. For example, without co
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5 Where does transcription occur in the cell?

Up to now we have described the processes of transcription without considering where each occurs within the cell.

SAQ 5

Given that transcription — the production of mRNA — requires a DNA template, where do you think t
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What are Molecules?
Molecules are made up of two or more atoms, such as hydrogen and oxygen to make water, or sodium and chloride to make salt. Discover how molecules are formed with important facts from a science teacher
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