2.4.3 Polarization mode distortion

Because light is an electromagnetic wave, it has a ‘state of polarization’, which, for light in single-mode fibre, is at right angles to the path of the fibre. If you've not encountered electromagnetic waves before, all you need to appreciate is that as light travels down the fibre the electromagnetic field has an orientation across the fibre (Author(s): The Open University

4.1 Distributive and commutative justice

Justice is commonly thought to have two applications which Aristotle distinguished as ‘distributive’ and ‘commutative’ justice. The first, distributive justice, is concerned with the distributions of things (rights, goods, services and so on) among a class of individuals.

What is distributive justice?

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2 The global water cycle

The flow of water through the land, the atmosphere and the sea is shown in Figure 3.

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3.1 Insect resistance

We will now look briefly at the science underlying the traits introduced into commercial crops, which you explored in Activity 1; a useful place to start is by considering how the property of resistance to insects is acquired by crops.

Insect damage causes huge losses of agricultural crops each year. For example, without co
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5 Where does transcription occur in the cell?

Up to now we have described the processes of transcription without considering where each occurs within the cell.

SAQ 5

Given that transcription — the production of mRNA — requires a DNA template, where do you think t
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What are Molecules?
Molecules are made up of two or more atoms, such as hydrogen and oxygen to make water, or sodium and chloride to make salt. Discover how molecules are formed with important facts from a science teacher
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11.2 Note taking

Different ways of note taking include:

  1. Re-writing:

    Here, the rewording of main parts in a course or article is undertaken. The advantage of this method is that you have thought about course concepts and ideas, and put them into your own words. Here you are summarising points and trying to do this concisely. This does not mean copying directly from the text (unless it is a short quotation you have referenced and chosen to illustrate a point).

    <
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1.4 Obesity

At the time of writing (2004) 20% of the adult population of the UK is classified as obese. The number of obese children has doubled since 1982, 10% of six year olds and 17% of fifteen year olds are now classified as obese. As shown in Table 4, obesity is recognized when the BMI exceeds 30 and occurs quite simply when energ
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1.1.6 Keeping up-to-date

How familiar are you with the following different ways of keeping up to date with information; alerts, mailing lists, newsgroups, blogs, RSS, professional bodies and societies?

  • 5 – Very familiar

  • 4 – Familiar

  • 3 – Fairly familiar

  • 2 – Not very familiar

  • 1 – Not familiar at all


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Charles Darwin lectures at the University of Nottingham
As part of the University of Nottingham, School of Biology's 200 years of Darwin celebrations, Darwin — aka evolutionary geneticist Professor John Brookfield in full Victorian attire — outlines the ideas from his 1859 breakthrough publication The Origin of Species, which presented the theory of natural selection as the main driving force for evolution. Presentation delivered March 2009 Suitable for Undergraduate study and community education Professor John Brookfield, Professor of Evolut
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Except for third party materials (materials owned by someone other than The University of Nottingham) and where otherwise indicated, the copyright in the content provided in this resource is owned by

Noise Pollution
How do your ears work and what kind of sound levels can damage your hearing? The five video tracks in this album explain basic concepts such as units of noise, sound insulation and noise control. Car manufacturers like Lexus have developed the quiet car, but this kind of technology benefits the driver, not the people living beside busy roads. Locals from a Derbyshire village explain how the construction of the A50 has affected their lives. The Transport Research Laboratory analyses tyre noise on
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

1.4 Nature matters in terms of a critical systems literacy

The systems philosopher and social planner Werner Ulrich has long argued for a more ethically informed idea of systems. Before looking at Ulrich's ideas, however, it is worth returning to examine the relevance of the earlier Moore and Martell readings to this subject.

One of the hallmarks of systems thinking is a recognition of the limits of holism, relating to the problem of aesthetic framing expressed by Ronald Moore (2006, p. 263):

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"Tess's Tree"--Meet Illustrator Peter H. Reynolds
Watch illustrator Peter H. Reynolds talk about his inspiration for Tess and see how he creates her. Tess loved her tree. She liked to swing on it and sit in its shade and catch its leaves in the fall.When Tess's tree has to come down, Tess is very sad . . . until she finds a way to gather friends and family and celebrate her tree's remarkable life.This is a book for sharing with people you love, among good friends, or on a quiet day under a favorite tree. This is a great reso
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Urban and rural waste in China
This free course, Urban and rural waste in China, is an introduction to the waste practices and waste management processes currently being practiced in China. Students learn about waste in China and then contrast those practices with their own. First published on Wed, 09 Mar 2016 as Author(s): Creator not set

Dimensions of the Global Food Crisis: Session 10
Professor Jules Pretty, Department of Environmental Studies, Essex University presents "Sustainability and the State of the World Food System". 44th Otago Foreign Policy School - Salmond Hall, Dunedin, New Zealand. Friday 26 June to Sunday 28 June 2009.
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2.7 Treatments for obesity

At this point you may be wondering what the range of studies that we have examined might suggest in terms of treatment for obesity. As you have seen, weight gain essentially arises from an imbalance of energy supply and energy expenditure. Therefore it is not surprising that dieting (restriction of energy input) and exercise (increased energy output) are recommended both to reduce body weight and also for their additional health benefits. However, even a quick survey of the research literatur
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Drawing a Mayflower Ship Cartoon
In this video, a cartoon drawing of the Mayflower is created step-by-step.  Very clear directions are given. (03:26)
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CTPI: Exploring Youth Justice: Progress and Possibilities
Chaired by Professor Murray Rae, Head of the Department of Theology and Religion, this is a panel discussion with Judge Andrew Becroft, Principal Youth Court Judge, Professor Mark Henaghan, Dean of the Faculty of Law, Professor Chris Marshall, Victoria University, Wellington and Dr Shayne Walker, Department of Sociology, Gender and Social Work. One often hears laments about the loss of moral standards and the high rates of criminal offending among youth. In fact, however, rates of youth offendin
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Change-making beyond the catwalk
Fashion journalist and sustainability expert Clare Press hosts an panel that reveals change-making is as diverse as the fashion world itself. Everyone can make a difference — as consumer, designer or industry-professional. She is joined by German designer Ina Budde and Melinda Tually, the driving force behind the Fashion Revolution Australia/NZ, as well as David Giles-Kaye, CEO of The Council of Textile and Fashion. Change-making beyond the catwalk on July 21, 2017, is presented by RMIT Gall
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3.4 How does the EU operate?

The EU operates through institutions created in the treaties. These institutions can have decision-making powers, law-making powers or may act as part of a checking and consultation procedure.

The institutions include:

  1. The European Parliament (represents the people of the EU).

  2. The Council of the European Union (represents the member states of the EU).

  3. The European Commission (represents the interests of the EU).
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