4.1 Distributive and commutative justice

Justice is commonly thought to have two applications which Aristotle distinguished as ‘distributive’ and ‘commutative’ justice. The first, distributive justice, is concerned with the distributions of things (rights, goods, services and so on) among a class of individuals.

What is distributive justice?

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2 The global water cycle

The flow of water through the land, the atmosphere and the sea is shown in Figure 3.

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3.1 Insect resistance

We will now look briefly at the science underlying the traits introduced into commercial crops, which you explored in Activity 1; a useful place to start is by considering how the property of resistance to insects is acquired by crops.

Insect damage causes huge losses of agricultural crops each year. For example, without co
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5 Where does transcription occur in the cell?

Up to now we have described the processes of transcription without considering where each occurs within the cell.

SAQ 5

Given that transcription — the production of mRNA — requires a DNA template, where do you think t
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11.2 Note taking

Different ways of note taking include:

  1. Re-writing:

    Here, the rewording of main parts in a course or article is undertaken. The advantage of this method is that you have thought about course concepts and ideas, and put them into your own words. Here you are summarising points and trying to do this concisely. This does not mean copying directly from the text (unless it is a short quotation you have referenced and chosen to illustrate a point).

    <
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1.1.6 Keeping up-to-date

How familiar are you with the following different ways of keeping up to date with information; alerts, mailing lists, newsgroups, blogs, RSS, professional bodies and societies?

  • 5 – Very familiar

  • 4 – Familiar

  • 3 – Fairly familiar

  • 2 – Not very familiar

  • 1 – Not familiar at all


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Charles Darwin lectures at the University of Nottingham
As part of the University of Nottingham, School of Biology's 200 years of Darwin celebrations, Darwin — aka evolutionary geneticist Professor John Brookfield in full Victorian attire — outlines the ideas from his 1859 breakthrough publication The Origin of Species, which presented the theory of natural selection as the main driving force for evolution. Presentation delivered March 2009 Suitable for Undergraduate study and community education Professor John Brookfield, Professor of Evolut
Author(s): Brookfield J. F. Y. Professor

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Noise Pollution
How do your ears work and what kind of sound levels can damage your hearing? The five video tracks in this album explain basic concepts such as units of noise, sound insulation and noise control. Car manufacturers like Lexus have developed the quiet car, but this kind of technology benefits the driver, not the people living beside busy roads. Locals from a Derbyshire village explain how the construction of the A50 has affected their lives. The Transport Research Laboratory analyses tyre noise on
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Part 1 - Emma by Jane Austen (Vol 1: Chs 01-09)
Part 1. Classic Literature VideoBook with synchronized text, interactive transcript, and closed captions in multiple languages. Audio courtesy of Librivox. Read by Moira Fogerty.


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1.4 Nature matters in terms of a critical systems literacy

The systems philosopher and social planner Werner Ulrich has long argued for a more ethically informed idea of systems. Before looking at Ulrich's ideas, however, it is worth returning to examine the relevance of the earlier Moore and Martell readings to this subject.

One of the hallmarks of systems thinking is a recognition of the limits of holism, relating to the problem of aesthetic framing expressed by Ronald Moore (2006, p. 263):

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Urban and rural waste in China
This free course, Urban and rural waste in China, is an introduction to the waste practices and waste management processes currently being practiced in China. Students learn about waste in China and then contrast those practices with their own. First published on Wed, 09 Mar 2016 as Author(s): Creator not set

Dimensions of the Global Food Crisis: Session 10
Professor Jules Pretty, Department of Environmental Studies, Essex University presents "Sustainability and the State of the World Food System". 44th Otago Foreign Policy School - Salmond Hall, Dunedin, New Zealand. Friday 26 June to Sunday 28 June 2009.
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Drawing a Mayflower Ship Cartoon
In this video, a cartoon drawing of the Mayflower is created step-by-step.  Very clear directions are given. (03:26)
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An introduction to energy resources
Energy resources are essential for any society, be it one dependent on subsistence farming or an industrialised country. There are many different sources of energy, some well-known such as coal or petroleum, others less so, such as tides or the heat inside the Earth. Is nuclear power a salvation or a nightmare? This free course, An introduction to energy resources, provides background information to each, so that you can assess them for yourself. Author(s): Creator not set

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3.4 How does the EU operate?

The EU operates through institutions created in the treaties. These institutions can have decision-making powers, law-making powers or may act as part of a checking and consultation procedure.

The institutions include:

  1. The European Parliament (represents the people of the EU).

  2. The Council of the European Union (represents the member states of the EU).

  3. The European Commission (represents the interests of the EU).
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Community Social Care
People throughout the community are affected by social issues, and it is the job of social workers to ensure that they are getting the best care, help and support that they need. The 16 tracks on this album look at numerous circumstances within the community - from the different ways of schooling young people with visual impairment, to fuel poverty, homelessness and the charity Mencap. The material forms part of The Open University course K202 Care, welfare and community.
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1.7 Summary

  1. Figure 12 summarises the ways in which the Earth's surface and atmosphere gain and lose energy. The main points are as follows:

    • A proportion (the planetary albedo) of the incoming shortwave radiation from the Sun is reflected (or scattered) directly back to space, mainly by clouds and the Earth's surface (especially snow and ice cover), but also by aerosols (e.g. dust, salt particles, etc.). Most of the rest is abs
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Content Caches
Content Caches -
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1.725J Chemicals in the Environment: Fate and Transport (MIT)
This core class in the Environmental M.Eng. program is for all students interested in the behavior of chemicals in the environment. The emphasis is on man-made chemicals; their movement through water, air, and soil; and their eventual fate. Physical transport, as well as chemical and biological sources and sinks, are discussed. Linkages to health effects, sources and control, and policy aspects are discussed and debated.
Author(s): Hemond, Harold,Chuang, Janet

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Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative C

The Concept of Dignity among Palestinian Youth: An Exploratory Pilot Study [Audio]
Speaker(s): Rita Giacaman | How do young Palestinians define dignity? What is the importance of dignity in their lives? What would increase or decrease their sense of dignity? Following a pilot project which included 102 interviews with young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years old in Ramallah, Professor Rita Giacaman's presentation will outline the main findings of the research which focused on young Palestinian's reflections on dignity. Rita Giacaman is a professor of public health at t
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