2.5 Why intentions?

Most of the rest of Grice's paper is dedicated to spelling out a way of identifying the meaning of an individual utterance ‘on an occasion’ with the content of the utterer's intentions (Step One). The hard task he faces is to say what type of intention creates meaning. If someone shouts ‘I saw a film last night’ extremely loudly at their brother with the intention of making this brother fall off his bike, this ‘utterance’ (if that is the right word) does not thereby mean fall o
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2.3 Grice on natural and non-natural meaning

Ironically, the word ‘meaning’ has many different meanings. There are four occurrences of ‘mean’ (or ‘meaning’ or ‘meant’, etc.), italicised, in the following paragraph:

Roberto's instructor had been mean to put it so bluntly, but she was probably correct that his short legs meant he would never be a great dancer. He turned into the narrow alleyway, meaning to take a shortcut ho
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References

Brown, A. (1995) Organisational Culture, London, Pitman.
Crace, J. (2000) ‘Feel at home with a job abroad’, Guardian, 14 October.
Drennan, D. (1992) Transforming Company Culture, London, McGraw Hill.
Hofstede, G. (1980) Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work Related Values, London,
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3.3 Deciding what to ask for

What you ask for will very largely determine what you receive. You are therefore faced with a crucial but complicated set of judgements and choices in translating your overall requirements into suitable ‘ask size’ chunks. Your global requirement for support has to be refined into a range of specific requests which it will be feasible and appropriate to direct to the particular cohort(s) of donors and supporters you seek to involve.

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4.2 Problem solving

Involving the whole team in the problem-solving process shows that you value their experience and knowledge in devising a solution. It may also be appropriate to involve other stakeholders and/or the project sponsor. If problems are solved jointly there is usually wider ownership of the solutions and their implications; and, if more resources are agreed to be needed or new procedures are put into place, there is also likely to be more support.

Problem solving can be broken down into a s
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1.1.3 The intercept

When a line cuts an axis, the line is said ‘to intercept the axis at’ [the particular point]. In this example, the line cuts the vertical (y) axis at £10, so ‘the line intercepts the y axis at £10’. It can also be said that ‘the intercept with the y axis is £10’.


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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • understand the value of graphics as visual thinking tools;

  • give examples of relevant graphics used in the business context.


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3.1 Introduction

Andraesen (1995) states that for the social marketer ‘consumer behaviour is the bottom line’ (p. 14). In order to understand how to develop programmes that will bring about behavioural change we need to understand something about the nature of behaviour. The consumer behaviour literature typically borrows from the fields of sociology, psychology and social anthropology amongst others. There is a vast, and growing, body of knowledge on the subject and a few of the main elements will be dis
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2.2 So how can social marketing be defined?

The definition offered by Kotler, Roberto and Lee (2002, p. 5) is a useful one:

The use of marketing principles and techniques to influence a target audience to voluntarily accept, reject, modify or abandon a behaviour for the benefit of individuals, groups or society as a whole.

Social marketing relies on voluntary compliance rather than legal, economic or coercive forms of influence.

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Introduction

This unit looks at equity finance – the range of equity instruments and markets available to a company. First, we look at private equity and the role of venture capital companies that provide such finance. We look at the mechanics of an initial public offering (IPO) and at recent cases of companies ‘listing’ on a stock exchange for the first time. We go on to explore certain important strategic issues for a business when considering equity finance:

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4.1 Introduction

A psychological perspective does not start from the assumption that people are fundamentally irrational. Rather, it emphasises a different logic: a logic that meets the challenges we have evolved to face (Calne, 1999). For much of our evolution we have faced an environment with major differences from the modern business world. We have developed a range of cognitive mechanisms to cope with adverse environments in which resources are scarce. These include a range of simplifying and confidence-s
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4 Key points

The important points this unit has covered include:

  • Defining the entrepreneur in terms of economic function and role.

  • Identifying the key characteristics of successful entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial firms.

  • Considering the role of entrepreneurial motivation in decision making and business behaviour.

  • Identifying leadership and management styles appropriate to an entrepreneurial firm


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1.1 Introduction

'The world of volunteering has today reported a dramatic increase in the number of people looking for opportunities to volunteer. Leaders of national volunteering organisations attribute this to a rise in unemployment across the UK.'

Volunteer England, 21 April 2009
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2.3 The challenge of terminology

Probably the biggest challenge that you will encounter is acquiring a command of the terms and concepts of this field of knowledge – even the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘science’ can seem off-putting. In your reading around this unit you will come into contact with a wide range of ‘-isms’, ‘-sophies’ and ‘-ologies’, some of which you may have encountered in previous studies. Actually, these terms are best seen as shorthand for groups of assumptions and ideas about the way th
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References

Audit Commission (2000) Another Country. Implementing Dispersal Under the Immigration and Asylum Act 1999, London, Audit Commission for Local Authorities and the National Health Service in England and Wales.
Bloch, A. (2002) Refugees' Opportunities and Barriers in Employment and Training, Department of Work and Pensions Research Report No.179, Norwich, HMSO.
Bl
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10.3 Further study

The resources within this unit have covered a wide range of subject areas including education, environment, technology, history, law, literature, politics, social care and social sciences.

If you are interested in becoming an Open University student you might want to visit New to the OU.

Below is a list of the Open University courses that have been drawn upon to create the OpenLearn Scotland collection.

  • What is poetry? is from A175
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1.1 The meaning of crime

Activity 1

What is a crime? Good question, but how to go about answering it? For most of us, most of the time, crime is something other people do. So why not check that against personal experience? Have a go at the questionnaire below,
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4 Conclusion

  • Since its invention, modern sport has been closely linked to the mass media as a central part of popular culture.

  • The media have expanded the reach of sports audiences and helped populate and enrich professional sport.

  • Sport provides exciting content for the media through comprehensible narratives and modern heroes and celebrities.

  • The media are selective in their coverage of sport, demonstrating inequaliti
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2.2 Summary

  • Developments in sports media have included a move towards more sensationalism, very similar to that in other popular cultural fields as represented in the tabloid press.

  • Sport coverage adopts the language of popular culture and its techniques (images, personal stories about family and personal problems).

  • Technologies and technical developments are crucial to the media–sport complex, whereby mediated sport culture creates
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