6 Further resources

Gilleard and Higgs (2000) more fully develop some of the ideas explored by Giddens (1994) in their useful and comprehensive introduction to post-structural readings of older age. Elder's (1977) life history account offers compelling insights into the intersections of class and gender through a socialist lens, and represents an early and interesting example of the life history and biographical method. Chamberlayne et al. (2000) provide comprehensive and thoughtful insights into biographical me
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4.1 Introduction

The 1970s marked a period in which the cessation of the ‘normal’ period of full-time employment at 60 or 65 years had become the accepted orthodoxy. The personal lives of older people had thus become constituted outside the domain of paid employment and within the arena of public and private welfare. As we illustrated in the preceding section, pensions, organised around fixed ages of retirement based on chronological measurements of age, played a crucial role in this process. Further, as
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2 Explaining fertility decline from a feminist perspective

Feminist theory underpins one of the most influential historiographies of fertility decline and it allows us to foreground gender as a dominant feature in questions of heterosexuality and parenthood. This is not to suggest that divisions of class, ‘race’, (dis)ability and generation are unimportant in this historical phenomenon, and any full understanding of fertility decline would be incomplete without including them. But in this unit the main focus will be on gender and these other soci
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1.4 Sexuality, parenthood and social policy

Just as procreative sexuality within marriage has rarely been the focus of historical research, as a social phenomenon it has also been viewed as inherently unproblematic in terms of social policy. Unlike today, there was very little explicit legislation or public policy that directly addressed the ‘private’ sphere of marriage and family during the fertility decline. However, there were a number of broad social policy formations that made assumptions and reinforced dominant messages about
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1.5.1 Different types of moving image

On paper, you can show movement by a series of diagrams each with a very small change. Figure 9 illustrates such a scenario. This has its uses, as it allows the process to be studied very carefully.

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4.2 Using images to good effect

The following are the main types of image.

  • Pictures. These include photographs, drawings and cartoons.

  • Diagrams. These include maps and other representations of relationships between objects, such as family trees and Venn diagrams. Some writers classify maps as charts. We have chosen not to do this.

  • Graphs and charts. These are visual representations of numbers. Thus, they include pie charts, h
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1.4.1 The role of images

We can use images in several ways.

  • To motivate, to attract the attention of the user, to amuse and to persuade. These uses are particularly important in advertising and marketing.

  • To communicate information. This is often exploited in computer-based learning materials.

  • To help overcome language barriers. This approach is widely used in instruction manuals for consumer items.

  • To support interaction. Fo
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1.3.5 Using colour to represent information

All UIs need to communicate information. Colour can be particularly effective for this. Table 4 summarises some of the techniques that are available.

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1.3.2 The characteristics of colour

Screens can only display a subset of the colours visible to the human eye. This limits the accuracy of colour reproduction. There is also variation between computers, so a web page on a PC may look different when viewed on a Macintosh. There are similar problems with colour printers.

These issues can cause problems for some sectors, such as the fashion industry.

There are also differences in the way we perceive colour from a screen compared to the way we perceive colour from paper
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1.3.1 The role of colour

We can use colour in the following ways.

  • To draw attention. You will often find that important buttons or areas of the screen are a different colour. For example, warning signs are often in bright colours, such as amber or red. Your eyes are drawn to these colours.

  • To show status. As the status becomes more critical, the colour might change. An example of this is traffic lights changing from amber to red.


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1 1 Getting the best from interaction devices

Once we have chosen an interaction device for a user interface, we need to consider how to use it effectively. We have relatively little control over the appearance or use of input devices, so we concentrate on the design of the feedback provided by output devices. In particular, we concentrate on the following software components that form this feedback.

  • Text. How can we ensure that the text is legible? Which font should we use? How long shou
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Introduction

Why is the way something looks important? Text, colour, images, moving images and sound all interact to produce a user friendly environment within a user interface. This unit will help you understand the effect each software component has on the user and explain how a consistent and thoughtful application of these components can have a significant impact on the ‘look’ of final product.

This unit is from our archive and is an adapted extract from User interface design and evaluation
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2.7 How to reference sources

You have seen how easy it is to find what what you want on the Web. When you quote any information or use any images that you have not written or created yourself it is important to ensure that you reference the source of the quote or image. This is to show that you are not trying to pass off someone else's work as your own, and to enable your reader, should they wish, to access the source of that quote.

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2.4 Using search engines

Search engines can be very good at finding information since they cover such a huge number of web pages. Unfortunately it can be difficult to find the one you want in the huge number of hits that they return. I can illustrate some of the problems, and some of the strategies you can use to overcome them, with an example.

Let's assume a friend of yours, Jill, has heard you talking about ‘Living with the Net’ and is trying to find out more about the course. What problems might Jill fac
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2.3 Searching for information on the Web

What do you do if you don't know the URL of the website you are looking for, or haven't been able to browse to it? The Web is not like a library – it isn't carefully organised and catalogued, and it is growing all the time. Luckily, there are search sites that can help you find what you want.

2.3.1 Portals

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6.3 Networks of objects

No serious program consists of a single object. Instead there will be a network of objects, which collaborate to achieve the functionality of the whole system. Figure 4 shows a network of objects representing a hotel, some guests and some rooms. This sort of diagram is called an object diagram or a snaps
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References

Michael Jackson, Software Requirements & Specifications, Addison-Wesley, 1995. ISBN 0–201–87712–0.
Suzanne Robertson and James Robertson, Mastering the Requirements Process, Addison-Wesley, second edition, 2006. ISBN 0–321–41949–9

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2.4 The message passing idea

Figure 1 shows the central idea behind the message passing paradigm. It involves an architecture in which clients and servers communicate using communication lines. In this model, in contrast with the others that are to be presented in this unit, the underlying structure of the network is visible via the communication media used to connect servers and clients and devices such as sockets, ports and server sockets which are involved in the transfer of a message from one computer to another.


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2.3 Synchronous and asynchronous message passing

Synchronous message passing involves one entity (usually a client) in the message passing process sending a message and a second entity (usually a server) receiving it, carrying out some processing and then sending back some response which the first entity processes in some way. While the second entity is carrying out the processing the first entity pauses waiting for the response.

In asynchronous message passing each entity in the process does not have to wait for the next part
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2.2 Fixed and adaptive protocols

The protocol described above for a simple naming service is an example of a fixed protocol. This is a protocol whose vocabulary is fixed: it is embedded in the client and server's code and data and does not change. An adaptive protocol is one where the protocol changes. A fixed protocol could change over a period of time because the functionality provided by a server changes. However, this change will be over months or years rather than over seconds.

There are some instances wher
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