1.5.1 Juvenile survival

For organisms that are able to complete their life cycles within a year there is the possibility of spending the winter in various juvenile stages. We have already considered annual plants, the adults of which may die before the onset of winter, with seed not germinating until the spring. Surviving the winter as seeds has the advantages that the seeds are robust, and because they have a low water content they are less affected by freezing temperatures. Disadvantages of this strategy include t
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1.4.3 Freeze tolerance in ectothermic vertebrates

In Britain, the vertebrate class Amphibia is represented by frogs, toads and newts. Amphibians are ectotherms, meaning that they are unable to generate large quantities of heat within their bodies, so their body temperature is close to that of their surroundings. The majority of amphibian species avoid the lethal consequences of being frozen, by digging their way under a large object, such as a rock, or deep into the soil, below the level that is penetrated by frost. There are some species, h
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By the end of this section, you will be able to: Identify periods of economic growth and recession using the aggregate supply–aggregate demand model Explain how […]

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1.2.2 Offshore fragments of industry

The rise of global factories in the 1970s owed much to the rapid improvement in transport and communications technologies which took place at that time and which made it possible to keep in touch with, and control, production processes in different parts of the world. Just as significant was the fragmentation of industrial production whereby parts of the manufacturing process could be relocated over vast distances. Sewing in garment and footwear production, for instance, was among the
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2.3.6 Torus with 1 hole

We need not restrict ourselves to rectangles: we can also build surfaces by identifying edges of other polygons. For example, if we start with a pentagon and identify two pairs of its edges as shown in Figure 33, what do we get? Identifying the edges labelled a and c in the directions indicated, we obtain
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2.3.5 Projective plane

The final surface that can be obtained by identifying edges of a rectangle is even more complicated. Again it cannot be constructed in three dimensions, so is not a surface in space and is hard to visualise. This time we identify both pairs of opposite edges of the rectangle in opposite directions, as indicated by the arrowheads in Author(s): The Open University

2.3.1 Cylinder

The simplest example of a paper-and-glue construction is to make a rectangle into a cylinder by gluing together two opposite edges. We take a closed rectangle ABB' A' in the plane and identify the opposite edges AB and A'B', as shown in Figure 27. This means that:

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6 Phylogeny and cladistic analysis

In Section 3.3 the point was made that many physiologists consider that desert birds are successful because of their avian physiology, not because of any specific adaptations. While Williams and Tieleman's research on hoopoe larks demonstrated that desert species are capable of flexibility in metabolic rate and evaporative water loss, it suggested that adaptation is important too. The selective advantages of lowered BMR and TEWL for desert birds include reduced energy demand, and lower produc
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