1.1 How has the human population grown?

For most of human history there have been relatively few people in the world. Figure 2 shows that only over the last 50 years have numbers really shot up, and that, at the turn of the century, the population reached over six billion.

Figure 2
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2.5.2 Environmental indicators

The notion of a link between climatic conditions and the behaviour of plants and animals (e.g. the growth of trees or coral) and the composition of natural communities or ecosystems (the type of vegetation in a given area, say) is fundamental to the use of proxy data to reconstruct past climates. Some examples of biological responses to recent climate change were included in Box 9. Here we should be wary of jumping to conclusions. Such changes involve complex living systems that can respond i
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11.368 Environmental Justice (MIT)
This class explores the foundations of the environmental justice movement, current and emerging issues, and the application of environmental justice analysis to environmental policy and planning. It examines claims made by diverse groups along with the policy and civil society responses that address perceived inequity and injustice. While focused mainly on the United States, international issues and perspectives are also considered.
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Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative C

1.7 Summary of Section 1 and questions

  • Converging lenses or mirrors cause parallel beams of light to be brought to a focus at the focal point, situated at a distance of one focal length beyond the lens or one focal length in front of the mirror. Diverging lenses or mirrors cause parallel beams of light to diverge as if emanating from the focal point of the lens or mirror. Light paths are reversible, so a converging lens or mirror may also act as a collimator and
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • list the types of springs, and how each type relates to a different geological setting

  • use hydrographs to distinguish overland flow and interflow from baseflow, and make inferences about the climate of an area

  • expain how various changes in land use in a river catchment will change the hydrograph of a river

  • distinguish the different types of reservoir construction, and decide whether a
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The Life and Works of T.S. Eliot
Eliot's life, influence, and poetry from the bold originality of "Prufrock" to the probing, meditative style of "Four Quartets" are explored with photos, archival footage, and discussion with friends, critics, and scholars. (57:10)
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College Student's Financial Survival Guide
This 1:43 video helps students understand the problems with managing money when they go to college. The lessons here can be applied to any age level, though. Several ideas are given as well as the importance of having a good credit rating.
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • work with simple ratios

  • convert between fractions, decimals and percentages

  • explain the meaning of ratio, proportion and percentage

  • find percentages of different quantities

  • calculate percentage increases and decreases.


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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • distinguish between the major anatomical components of the outer, middle and inner ear

  • describe the function of the outer, middle and inner ear

  • describe the structure of the cochlea

  • describe the structural arrangements of the organ of Corti and the function of the basilar membrane

  • decribe the main causes of hearing impairments and the methods used to rehabilitate hearin
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4.1 Introduction

The 1970s marked a period in which the cessation of the ‘normal’ period of full-time employment at 60 or 65 years had become the accepted orthodoxy. The personal lives of older people had thus become constituted outside the domain of paid employment and within the arena of public and private welfare. As we illustrated in the preceding section, pensions, organised around fixed ages of retirement based on chronological measurements of age, played a crucial role in this process. Further, as
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Preface
OpenStax College
Principles of Economics is designed for a two-semester principles of economics sequence. It is traditional in coverage, including introductory economics content, microeconomics, macroeconomics […]

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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • understand the different interpretations of internationally recognised notions of rights and justice;

  • give examples of implementing justice in an international sphere;

  • investigate questions in international studies;

  • analyse the different agencies of change in the international system.


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1 Genetic manipulation of plants and GM crops: an introduction

In this course we will consider the genetic manipulation of plants, and the production of GM crops. A great deal has been written about the science of GM crops and the controversial issues surrounding their introduction around the world. In the study time available, we will focus on a small number of selected issues.

In this course you'll have the opportunity to learn more about the science that has been used to engineer a range of GM crops, and examine both the science and social conce
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1.1 Thoughts on a PhD

Entering students often think of a PhD as a ‘magnum opus’, a brilliant research project culminating in a great work. This is rather a demanding model, and few students win Nobel Prizes as a result of their doctoral studies. More realistically, a PhD is research training leading to a research qualification. The PhD is a passport to a research career.

There are other views of a PhD, as well. Getting a PhD can be a ‘rite of passage’, prerequisite to admission into the academic ‘t
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1.1 The meaning of crime

Activity 1

What is a crime? Good question, but how to go about answering it? For most of us, most of the time, crime is something other people do. So why not check that against personal experience? Have a go at the questionnaire below,
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1.5.5 Social bookmarks

If you find you have a long unmanageable list of favourites/bookmarks you might like to try social bookmarks as an alternative.

Activity 14 – what you need to know about social bookmarks

Read 7 things you sh
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What is Static Electricity ? (Animation)
What is Static Electricity? This brief (00:43) video shows how negative and positve charges attract and repel each other.
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1.2 Audio files

The following files accompany the exercise in Section 4.2

Clicking on the link below opens an extract from Section 4.2 of the course (PDF, 1.7 MB) which accompanies the audio clips, also below. Listen to each of them in turn with the extracted pages open (you may like to print them out). Work on the problems at the appropriate places – you'll find the answers at the foot of this page.

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Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying Mathematics and Statistics. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.


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4.4 Ribozymes

Several types of RNA have been shown to have catalytic activity directed towards strand cleavage. They were originally observed in the case of ‘self-splicing’ introns, i.e. segments of the immature non-protein-coding mRNA that remove themselves during the formation of mature RNA, as shown in Figure 20a. The term ribozyme has been coined to describe all such catalytic RNA molecules.

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