2.5 Mind mapping

The focus of this section has been on encouraging you to gather evidence about what qualities, knowledge and skills you have already. This is an important first step, especially if it helps you to realise that you have more than perhaps you realised. It is also an important step as it starts to make the case that it is important to value your qualities, knowledge and skills. If you value them, it is far more likely that other people will value them too.

However, it is also important to
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2.1 Introduction

This unit is about using learning to bring about personal change. This assumes that learning can help achieve such change. Section 2 aims to be the first step in showing you how this is possible. This section has three separate but related aspects:

  1. Section 2 looks at what the word ‘learning’ includes. This turns out to be a very wide ranging idea that suggests that human beings learn all the time. What we learn has impo
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1.6 Conclusion

At the start of this section, there was a list of what we hoped you would get from your study of this section. To save you looking back, the aims of the section were to:

  • provide you with a clear idea of what the unit is about and how it is structured
  • help you understand the importance of the word ‘skills’
  • start you thinking about your own learning.

It would be useful to think back over this list before moving on to section
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1.4 Study skills, other skills

You will find many references to ‘skills’ in this unit. Before we explain how we will be using this word, we would like you to think about what you understand is meant by ‘skills’.

Activity 2 What’s in a word – skills?

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3.1.2 When is a table not a good format to use?

There are very few cases where a table will be the worst format to use. However, when you have a huge amount of data, you may wish to present some of it in a different format. Other formats for presenting data are explained in Sections 4–6.


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5.1.7 Literature

Drabble, M. (ed.) (1995) The Oxford Companion to English Literature, Oxford, Oxford University Press.


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2.2 Knowing about unseen information

An obvious difference between hearing and seeing is that the former is extended in time, while the latter extends over space. So, for example, we can listen to a spoken sentence coming from one place, but it takes some time to hear it all. In contrast, a written sentence is spread over an area (of paper, say) but, as long as it is reasonably short, it can be seen almost instantly. Nevertheless, seeing does require some finite time to capture and analyse the information. This process can be ex
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1.5 Summary of Section 1

The auditory system is able to process sounds in such a way that, although several may be present simultaneously, it is possible to focus upon the message of interest. However, in experiments on auditory attention, there have been contradictory results concerning the fate of the unattended material:

  • The auditory system processes mixed sounds in such a way that it is possible to focus upon a single wanted message.

  • Unattended material a
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1.3 Attending to sounds

From the earlier sections, you will appreciate that the auditory system is able to separate different, superimposed sounds on the basis of their different source directions. This makes it possible to attend to any one sound without confusion, and we have the sensation of moving our ‘listening attention’ to focus on the desired sound. For example, as I write this I can listen to the quiet hum of the computer in front of me, or swing my attention to the bird song outside the window to my ri
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1.2 Disentangling sounds

If you are still feeling aggrieved about the shortcomings of evolution, then you might take heart from the remarkable way in which the auditory system has evolved so as to avoid a serious potential problem. Unlike our eyes, our ears cannot be directed so as to avoid registering material that we wish to ignore; whatever sounds are present in the environment, we must inevitably be exposed to them. In a busy setting such as a party we are swamped by simultaneous sounds – people in different pa
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2 How active should young people be?

Physical activity in childhood has a range of benefits, including healthy growth and development, maintenance of a healthy weight, mental well-being and learning social skills. It is particularly important for bone health, increasing bone mineral density and preventing osteoporosis in later life. Although there is only indirect evidence (compared with adults) linking physical inactivity in children with childhood health outc
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1 Myths and misconceptions

Physical education provides opportunities for pupils to be creative, competitive and to face up to different challenges as individuals, and in groups and teams. It promotes positive attitudes towards active and healthy lifestyles.

(Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (2004) www.nc.uk.net/esd/teaching/pe/index.htm)

What does this mean for PE teachers? How can PE teachers effectively help to
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Introduction

In this unit, aimed at teachers of Physical Education, we begin by looking at some of the common misconceptions relating to fitness and activity levels together with accepted definitions of these concepts. We consider how active young people should actually be, and discuss how PE teachers can ensure they are making an effective contribution to this area of public health.


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Acknowledgements

Author

This unit was originally prepared for TeachandLearn.net by Zoe Macdonald who is Head of RE at Bourne Grammar School in Lincolnshire. She is active in the delivery of in-school training on a variety of subjects, and lectures annually at the St Gabriel’s National Conference for RE teachers.

Other acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see
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References

Hughes, M. (1991) Closing the Learning Gap, Network Educational Press Ltd.
Lucas, W. (2001) Power Up Your Mind, Nicholas Brearley Publishing.
Rose, C. (1985) Accelerated Learning, Accelerated Learning Systems Ltd.
UNESCO (1977) Suggestive, accelerative learning and teaching: A manual of classroom procedures base
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5. Learning styles

There are now numerous resources available on learning styles or multiple intelligences, and their implications for classroom learning. At the simplest level, what teachers need to recognise is that not all of their students will prefer to learn in the same way. Although everybody is capable of working in most learning styles, we will all have our preferred learning style in which we learn most efficiently.

Click on "view document" below and read the brief definitions of visual, auditor
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4. Music and learning

‘In music the sages found pleasure, and saw that it could be used to make the hearts of the people good. Because of the deep influence it exerts on man, and the change it produces in manners and customs, the ancient kings caused it to be one of the subjects of instruction.’

Confucius (551–479 BCE)

Dr Georgi Lozanov has done considerable research into the effects of music on learning,
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3. Review and recall

Learning cannot take place without memory, and we expect our students to be able to process, synthesise and recall a vast amount of information every day. There are, however, some simple strategies that we can employ to help them to do this.

Firstly consider the natural concentration span. A rough guide is that concentration span in minutes is equivalent to chronological age in years, +/− 2 minutes. That means that even our most attentive 18 year olds need a short concentration break
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2. Connecting the hemispheres

We know that our brains are divided into two hemispheres, and that different areas of the brain have a dominant responsibility for different functions and actions. It is important to maximise our brain use; some studies say that we use less than 5 per cent!

In general, the Western educational system is strongly weighted towards the functions of the left brain – reading, writing, listening, and activities involving logic and sequence. ‘Right brain’ activities involving images, colo
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1. Efficient brain performance

Two sources of fuel are particularly important to ensure a healthy and efficiently functioning brain – oxygen and water. Fortunately, in many countries, both of these are in ready supply! Many schools in the UK are already beginning to recognise the need for students (and their brains) to be sufficiently hydrated, and have installed water-coolers at strategic points. Oxygen is easier to supply, but sitting down for a typical 50-minute lesson could decrease the amount of oxygen delivered to
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