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5 Conclusion

The great advantage of history painting as a form of propaganda was that it could appear to be nothing of the kind. Whereas an official portrait of Napoleon fairly obviously served to focus loyalty towards the nation's leader, a depiction of a battle could be seen, on the one hand, as a work of art in its own right and, on the other, as an objective record of a historical event. This meant that the viewers whose attention was attracted by such a picture would be likely to absorb the version o
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3.1 The limits of propaganda

Although portraits of Napoleon were manufactured on a large scale and distributed widely, they could only act as propaganda for the regime up to a certain point. Given the institutional circumstances sketched out in the introduction to this unit, the most effective way to use art as propaganda was with large-scale history paintings that would attract the attention and excite the interest of a large audience when they were exhibited in the Salon. State patronage for such painting was revived o
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5.6.3 Honeymoons

Image 65 Photographer/Painter: Alfred Pettit, Keswick. Subject: Ben Naylor and his new wife Carrie, née Birchall, on their honeymooon in the Lake District, c.1880.<
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5.6.2 Engagement and marriage

Of all rites of passage celebrated in the Victorian family album, those taken at the time of engagement and marriage are by far the most numerous. This testifies to the importance vested in marriage by the Victorians. The custom of commissioning oil or miniature portraits at the time of an engagement or marriage was well established before the advent of photography. Photography enabled couples on more modest incomes to indulge a practice that became widespread among working-class families by
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1 Popular responses to the South African War, 1899–1902

It is convenient for purposes of comparison to examine popular responses to the Boer War or South African War of 1899 to 1902, which involved Britain in a war for the Transvaal, and to the Spanish-American War of 1898, which was fought, ostensibly at least, to free the Cuban people from Spanish oppression.

The South African War certainly involved the British working population. The war was fought by members of the working and lower-middle classes, many of whom volunteered. And the war w
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Introduction

Historians on both sides of the Atlantic have argued that the empire was not an issue of popular interest in the late nineteenth-century Britain and the United States. This unit examines some of the evidence available to assess the truth of this claim. More broadly, the unit raises questions related to evidence: is it possible to discover what ‘ordinary’ people thought about expansionism?

‘I couldn't give a damn’; ‘I don't know anything about politics’; ‘Why don't they lea
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2.2 Insider/outsider perspectives

Social historians have long argued that we must study history ‘from the underside’, if we want to thoroughly understand a society. In other words, it is not sufficient to have a top-down knowledge of a society's institutions and politics. We need also to examine how ordinary, ‘unimportant’ people operate within a culture: what influences them and what they can (and cannot) influence; how they see their role in society and how others see it. The outsider view is the view from the outsi
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2.1 New perspectives

The purpose of studying religion is to make the strange familiar, and the familiar strange.

Exercise

We would encourage you now to jot do
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3.3 The musicians at work

4.11.1 Debating and negotiating meaning

The two briefings in Boxes 4.10 and 4.11 illustrate other technological approaches to supporting socially based forms of knowledge generation, with the common theme of facilitating negotiation and debate among stakeholders. These are examples of tools which can assist communication between communities of practice as they seek to understand each other's perspectives.

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4.8.1 Capturing meetings

Internet meetings and broadcasts can be easily recorded and replayed because everything is mediated digitally: the text of emails, the audio stream and the slides used. However, face-to-face meetings are by far still the most common way to present and discuss issues in organisations, and the richness of personal presence makes them unlikely to disappear. How can face-to-face meetings be ‘captured’? Traditional written minutes provide a rough summary of points discussed, but provide only t
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3.4.1 Integrating memory systems into the flow of work

There has been a substantial amount of research interest over the last decade in group/organisational memory systems. For example, software researchers have investigated the possibility of capturing design rationale, the key reasoning that underpins design decisions (Moran and Carroll, 1996). However, time and again projects have failed. A given information codification scheme encourages particular ways of thinking about information and the problem at hand: typically, information must
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4.1 Choosing customers

Think about your own organisation – or your own experiences as a customer. I'm sure you'll agree that, over the last few years, customers have become very sophisticated. They expect higher standards, lower costs, and a wide range of goods and services that are provided at their convenience. If an organisation does not provide what they want, they find one that can.

Most companies have experienced changes in their markets, such as new customer demands and expectations, and new competit
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5 Legacy fundraising

Legacies are an extremely important source of income for many charities. In the UK they represent well over a quarter of the total income from individuals of the top 500 fundraising charities, with a particularly strong showing in healthcare and animal charities (Sargeant and Jay, 2004). Slightly fewer than half of adults in the UK have written wills, but more than one in ten of those who do, leave charitable bequests (Radcliffe, 2007). Figures like this suggest there is plenty of potential t
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4.3 The ‘maximum potential’ or ‘major support’ approach

It may be that your organisational resources and contacts do not permit a ‘top-down’ strategy of this nature. But that should not prevent you from adopting a big gift orientation. As you saw in relation to the donor matrix, it is better to think of a big gift as ‘the maximum contribution a donor can make’ rather than a fixed sum of money or measure of active support. The Pareto principle predicts that in any appeal or programme you are likely to secure the bulk of your target from a r
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3.3 Outputs

The principal outputs of a doctor's surgery are cured patients; the outputs of a nuclear reprocessing plant include reprocessed fuel and nuclear waste. Many transformation processes produce both goods and services. For example, a restaurant provides a service, but also produces goods such as food and drinks.

Transformation processes may result in some undesirable outputs (such as nuclear waste in the example above) as well as the goods and services they are designed to deliver. An impor
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3.2 Inputs

Some inputs are used up in the process of creating goods or services; others play a part in the creation process but are not used up. To distinguish between these, input resources are usually classified as:

  • transformed resources – those that are transformed in some way by the operation to produce the goods or services that are its outputs

  • transforming resources – those that are used to perform the transformation process.


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The communications mix – a few points to note

The above classification raises a few points which it may be useful to bear in mind:

  • Communication tools change over time and particularly as a result of technological developments.

  • Related to the above point is a blurring of distinction between ‘promotion’ and ‘place’ (method of distribution). This is particularly true as direct marketing and subsequently internet/interactive marketing have been included as separate communica
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Introduction

How do financial markets match providers with users, and how efficiently does the market determine prices? Financial markets can be notoriously volatile, and the stock market is possibly the most volatile of them all. This is after all the place where, depending on skill or on luck, investors either ‘make a killing’ or ‘lose their shirts’. But which does it depend on – skill or luck? Or does it depend on a mixture of the two? In this unit, you will find the answers to these key que
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3.7 News sources

Many news sources are now available online. Searching an online version of a newspaper is easier, quicker and more effective than searching through printed indexes, microfilm or actual newspapers.

Abyz News LinksA portal to online news sources from around the world, providing up-
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