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Learning outcomes

At the end of this unit you should know that:

  • By biological evolution we mean that many of the organisms that inhabit the Earth today are different from those that inhabited it in the past.

  • Natural selection is one of several processes that can bring about evolution, although it can also promote stability rather than change.

  • The four propositions underlying Darwin's theory of evolution through natural selection are: (1) more individuals are produced
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Introduction

In this unit, we describe the theory of evolution by natural selection as proposed by Charles Darwin in his book, first published in 1859, On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. We will look at natural selection as Darwin did, taking inheritance for granted, but ignoring the mechanisms underlying it.

This unit is from our archive and is an adapted extracted from Discovering science (S103) whic
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1.5.2 Ways of organizing yourself

How do you organize yourself?

Activity

Make a note of how you organise your:

  • emails

  • internet bookmarks or favorites

  • computer files

  • your h
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1.4.1 PROMPT

There is so much information available on the Internet on every topic imaginable. But how do you know if it is any good? And if you find a lot more information than you really need, how do you decide what to keep and who to discard?

In this section we are going to introduce a simple checklist to help you to judge the quality of the information you find. Before we do this, spend a few minutes thinking about what is meant by information quality.

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1.3.8 News sources

Many news sources are now available online. Searching an online version of a newspaper is easier, quicker and more effective than searching through printed indexes, microfilm or actual newspapers.

EurekAlert! A global gateway dealing with news and links to information in the fields
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1.1.5 Organising Information

How confident are you that you know when it is appropriate to cite references (refer to the work of other people) in your written work?

  • 5 - Very confident

  • 4 - Confident

  • 3 - Fairly confident

  • 2 - Not very confident

  • 1 - Not confident at all

How confident do you feel about producing bibliographies (lists of references) in an appropriate format to accompany your written
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this guide you should be able to:

  • conduct your own searches efficiently and effectively;

  • find references to material in bibliographic databases;

  • make efficient use of full text electronic journals services;

  • critically evaluate information from a variety of sources;

  • understand the importance of organizing your own information;

  • identify some of the systems available;

  • describe ho
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary and is used under licence.

Text

The following articles (originally published as mentioned below) appear in Reconsidering Science Learning (2004) (eds) Eileen Scanlon, P
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7.3 Multiple interpretations in science

Talking of media reports of the Chernobyl episode, Millar and Wynne point out that:

[disagreements between scientists] become difficult to interpret, other than in terms of bias or incompetence. Divergences between the data and interpretations of pressure groups … and the official sources are attributed to the former [bias]; those between different official agencies … to the latter [incompetence]. Only in a han
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Introduction

This unit is designed to introduce you to the supreme law-making body within the UK: the UK Parliament situated at Westminster, London. You will also examine the wide variety of sources that influence Parliament including constituents, pressure groups and Parliamentary subcommittees. This unit will also introduce you to the skills required in reading legal cases, reading and understanding Acts of Parliament, taking notes and summarising ideas.

This unit is an adapted extract from the co
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3.5 Review of learning outcomes

Decide for yourself, by working through the table below, whether you have satisfied the learning outcomes for Part B.

<
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5.2.3 Looking at the intention of the rule-maker

To resolve these problems, a rule-applier may adopt a yet broader interpretive strategy. This involves attempting to work out what the intention of the rule-maker was when the rule was formulated. In other words, it means going beyond or outside the language of the rule itself. In the context of a statute (i.e. an Act of Parliament), this may involve the rule-applier (the judge) looking at the law that existed before the statute was enacted and working out what the problem with that la
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4.2 The protection of private interests in public places

Thus far we have seen how the European Court of Human Rights has used the right to a private life to protect individuals from excessive police surveillance, interception of their private correspondence and interference with their private sexual practices. Almost everyone must live partly in public, and private interests need protection in public places as well as on private property. In the Naomi Campbell case, the House of Lords acknowledged that in certain circumstances there may be a reaso
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4.1 The right to privacy and the state

The European Convention on Human Rights impacts upon legal rules in the UK. The European Convention protects a series of fundamental human rights. All final judgments of the European Court of Human Rights are binding on the state involved. In other words, the UK is expected to change the law to accommodate the rulings of the European Court of Human Rights. In Part D we will examine the right to privacy as enshrined in the European Convention on Human Rights and consider how the European Court
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3.3 Summary of part C

What the courts have established in the cases we have looked at is not a hard and fast privacy doctrine, but a situation in which each case is decided by individual judges on its particular merits. There is no free-standing right to privacy for individuals to enforce. However, where individuals have a strong countervailing interest to protect, the courts are willing to uphold their right to confidence.

  • Michael Douglas and Catherine Zeta-Jones successf
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1.2 Balancing the right to privacy and other rights

Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights protects freedom of expression. Section 12 of the Human Rights Act 1998 requires the courts in the UK to have particular regard to the importance of the right to freedom of expression. However, freedom of expression and the right to privacy frequently collide. This can be illustrated by reference to the American case of Anonsen v Donohue (1993). In this case a woman revealed on national television that her husband had raped and impr
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Introduction

Privacy has long been recognised as one of the important human rights and this is reflected in religion and history. There are, for example, references to privacy in the Qur'an, the Bible and Jewish law. Privacy was also protected in classical Greece and ancient China.

The protection of privacy is seen as a way of drawing the line to indicate how far society can intrude into a person's affairs. Privacy encompasses an individual's liberty to choose how they lead their lives, freedom from
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3.4 The development of the European Convention on Human Rights

The aftermath of the Second World War was a time of great activity in the realms of human rights throughout the world, and the United Nations Charter itself, signed on 26 June 1945, included an obligation on states to respect fundamental human rights and freedoms. The development of an International Bill of Rights was significantly influenced by the commencement of the Cold War. However, that did not prevent the signing of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of
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5.3 EU secondary legislation

Law made by the EU institutions in exercising the powers conferred on them by the treaties is referred to as secondary legislation. This legislation includes:

  • regulations

  • directives

  • decisions

  • recommendations

  • opinions.

Another EU institution often required to contribute to the EU law-making process is the European Court of Justice. This has two main functions:


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2.2 The Convention itself

The ECHR is essentially a charter of rights. Any charter of rights represents a consensus, a negotiated agreement between the drafters. Every state intending to adopt a charter will have its own vision and aims, and the drafters have to find a way of accommodating these visions and aims. This often results in the creation of provisions that are a compromise and are drafted in the widest possible terms. The ECHR is drafted in such a way. It is a vaguely worded aspirational charter inten
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I am confident that I have a sufficiently comprehensive understanding to enable me to move on. I am sufficiently confident in my understanding to enable me to move on, but I am aware that I need to revisit the material later.