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5.1 Introduction

Much of this unit is about risk, but as we have seen, it is a word with different interpretations – the risk of harm, the chance of gain or simple uncertainty, for example. So it may be seen as a balance between conformance and performance in an organisation. Although functional emphasis and management boundaries are inherently flexible, risk linked to harm typically represents the perspective of managers responsible for conformance activities – particularly, the financial controller, int
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4.1 Introduction

Annual costs to employers from accidental injury and occupational illness are on the order of 5–10 per cent of the gross profits of UK industry. The total social cost, including the cost of benefits and National Health hospitalisation and treatment, make this a truly staggering drain on the nation's coffers!

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4.3 Asymmetry between labour and capital

Finally, stepping back to get a broader picture, I would like to point to the asymmetry built into the emerging institutional framework governing international economic relations, of which the WTO is one important pillar. The various WTO agreements encourage free movement of goods and certain kinds of services. Possible agreements on cross-border investment and competition policy may allow for freer international movement of capital, already encouraged by the IMF. Yet there is no move towards
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An introduction to electronics
Electronics is fundamental to modern life. Using an interactive website, videos, and easy-to-use electronic circuit design and simulation software, this free course, An introduction to electronics, will show how electronic devices and systems pervade everything we do, and teach some of the basic ideas. First published on Thu, 01 Nov 2018 as Author(s): Creator not set

3.1 Introduction

The basic optical-fibre link consisted of the source (laser or LED), the fibre and the detector, as was shown in Figure 1. Improvements in these components can increase the data rate, but the system is still a point-to-point transmission link and all signal processing, such as routein
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6.2 Proposal definition

  • 1. What is the nature, purpose and scope of the proposed change? What are its objectives? Are there any constraints to be taken into account?

  • 2. What am I asking for – in terms of specific resources, permissions and so on?

  • 3
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References

Collins, S., Ghey, J. and Mills, G. (1989) The Professional Engineer in Society, London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Foster, J., with Corby, L. (illustrator) (1996) How to Get Ideas, San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.
Haaland, J., Wingert, J. and Olson, B. A. (1963) 'Force required to activate switches, maximum finger pushing force, and coefficient
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4.5 Model the best solution

In moving from the 'possible solutions' to the 'best solution' box, Figure 12, we have to assume that a certain amount of evaluation has been done in the previous loop. The solution is still on paper, and probably not much more than a sketch, but something is badly wrong if the best solution to co
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3 Needs and problems

The last section has established that engineering is about satisfying needs. In fact, with so many needs, it's a wonder that not everyone is an engineer! So, now that we have talked about both needs and problems, the logical progression is to examine the relationship between them.

Take the water example as being a fundamental need. We can state it thus:

This village needs a supply of clean water.
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6.1 Introduction

This section is concerned with the plant used in carrying water from the treatment works to houses, farms, blocks of flats and other buildings of a community. The major components of this distribution network are shown in Figure 37 and comprise:

  1. the service reservoir, which must balance the fluctuating demands of the users against the steady output from the source of supply, as well as provide a back-up supply should there be a breakdown at the source;
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5.12 Sludge treatment and disposal

The sludge collected in any sedimentation tank in the water treatment process has to be disposed of. In some instances the wet sludge is transported to the nearest sewage works where it is discharged into the raw sewage inlet channel. The presence of the added chemicals can help in the primary sedimentation of the crude sewage. Alternatively, the sludge can be sent to a landfill site after it has been concentrated into a cake by dewatering.

The dewatering is carried out by pressure filt
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2.4 Condensation

As air rises it expands, owing to the decrease in pressure with height, and as it expands, in theory it cools at an average rate of 1°C for every 100 m of altitude. As the air cools, it becomes saturated with water vapour which condenses around small particles in the air. These particles may occur naturally, such as soil particles or salt particles residual to evaporation of sea spray, or they may be produced artificially during combustion. A measure of the necessary cooling to produce conde
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Medicine transformed: on access to healthcare
Access to healthcare is important to all of us. Did the arrival of state medicine in the twentieth century mean that everyone had access to good medical services? If you fell sick in 1930 where could you get treatment from a GP, a hospital, a nurse? This free course, Medicine transformed: On access to healthcare, shows that in the early twentieth century, access to care was unequally divided. The rich could afford care; working men, women and children were helped by the state; others had to rely
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Women Writers: Voices in Transition
In the last century which women writers have truly challenged the existing forms of literature? How did they make their voices heard using brand new techniques and styles? For centuries there have been women writers who have changed the face of literature, but we tend to talk of their lives and work in very certain terms. This series of video-slideshows reveals how writing and reputation are often forged in transition, uncertainty and change. In these 4 films we re-examine the lives, work and in
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Introduction

This free course asks what it is to be a person. You will see that there are several philosophical questions around the nature of personhood. Here we explore what it is that defines the concept. As you work through the course, you will notice that this area of enquiry has developed its own semi-technical vocabulary. The plural of ‘person’ is, in this area of enquiry, ‘persons’ rather than ‘people’. It is easy to see the reason for this. The question ‘What are people?’ is pote
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Introduction

This course examines David Hume's reasons for being complacent in the face of death, as these are laid out in his suppressed essay of 1755, ‘Of the immortality of the soul’. More generally, they examine some of the shifts in attitude concerning death and religious belief that were taking place in Europe at the end of the eighteenth century, through examination of this and other short essays.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of Level 2 study in Author(s): The Open University

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Introduction

This course presents information about how Scottish healthcare institutions were influenced by the underlying social, economic, political and cultural contexts.

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, a series of innovative models of the body was produced, from the mechanical to the mathematical to the sensible. As groundbreaking anatomical investigation and physiological experimentation were carried out, the map of the body changed, and different parts (vessels, glands, nerves) ac
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Working with dilemmas
Dilemmas are part of the fabric of organisational and individual life; these are often presented as the choice between two (or more) equally compelling propositions. In this free course, Working with dilemmas, you will focus on how to address dilemmas effectively. In particular, you will explore the extent to which dilemmas are or should be treated as choices between two extremes, and how the response to and resolution of dilemmas can move beyond binary choices to the reconciliation of opposites
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Language in the real world
This free course, Language in the real world, explains and illustrates why a knowledge about how language works (i.e. ‘linguistics’) is helpful – some might say essential – for different aspects of our everyday lives. It provides an introduction to ideas around what language is and to the field of Applied Linguistics, which is dedicated to exploring and addressing situations where language plays a crucial role.Author(s): Creator not set

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Dundee, jute and empire
Britain was the first country to industrialise, and it acquired the largest empire ever during this same period. But its sphere of economic influence extended far beyond the boundaries of the formal British Empire. This free course, Dundee, jute and empire, focuses on the economics of empire, using a case study of one town, Dundee in eastern Scotland, to explore this huge topic. Author(s): Creator not set

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