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6.1 Introduction

This section is concerned with the plant used in carrying water from the treatment works to houses, farms, blocks of flats and other buildings of a community. The major components of this distribution network are shown in Figure 37 and comprise:

  1. the service reservoir, which must balance the fluctuating demands of the users against the steady output from the source of supply, as well as provide a back-up supply should there be a breakdown at the source;
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5.12 Sludge treatment and disposal

The sludge collected in any sedimentation tank in the water treatment process has to be disposed of. In some instances the wet sludge is transported to the nearest sewage works where it is discharged into the raw sewage inlet channel. The presence of the added chemicals can help in the primary sedimentation of the crude sewage. Alternatively, the sludge can be sent to a landfill site after it has been concentrated into a cake by dewatering.

The dewatering is carried out by pressure filt
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2.4 Condensation

As air rises it expands, owing to the decrease in pressure with height, and as it expands, in theory it cools at an average rate of 1°C for every 100 m of altitude. As the air cools, it becomes saturated with water vapour which condenses around small particles in the air. These particles may occur naturally, such as soil particles or salt particles residual to evaporation of sea spray, or they may be produced artificially during combustion. A measure of the necessary cooling to produce conde
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Norma Waterson: English Folk Singing
Song, in its many forms, surrounds us - and may have been a feature of life since the very beginnings of human history. It is practiced in every society in the world, its importance undiminished in modern times. The tracks on this album focus on English Folk singing, the traditions behind the songs, and the stories behind the traditions. Performances from folk singer Norma Waterson complete the fascinating journey through English folk heritage. This material is drawn from The Open University cou
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Late nineteenth-century Britain and America: The people and the empire
Historians on both sides of the Atlantic have argued that the empire was not an issue of popular interest in late nineteenth-century Britain and the United States. In this free course, Late nineteenth-century Britain and America: The people and the empire, we shall look more closely at the evidence available to assess the truth of this argument. Were the working people, as opposed to the political leaders, interested in the issue of expansion? Was such interest evident only among certain section
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Women Writers: Voices in Transition
In the last century which women writers have truly challenged the existing forms of literature? How did they make their voices heard using brand new techniques and styles? For centuries there have been women writers who have changed the face of literature, but we tend to talk of their lives and work in very certain terms. This series of video-slideshows reveals how writing and reputation are often forged in transition, uncertainty and change. In these 4 films we re-examine the lives, work and in
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Introduction

This free course asks what it is to be a person. You will see that there are several philosophical questions around the nature of personhood. Here we explore what it is that defines the concept. As you work through the course, you will notice that this area of enquiry has developed its own semi-technical vocabulary. The plural of ‘person’ is, in this area of enquiry, ‘persons’ rather than ‘people’. It is easy to see the reason for this. The question ‘What are people?’ is pote
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Introduction

This course examines David Hume's reasons for being complacent in the face of death, as these are laid out in his suppressed essay of 1755, ‘Of the immortality of the soul’. More generally, they examine some of the shifts in attitude concerning death and religious belief that were taking place in Europe at the end of the eighteenth century, through examination of this and other short essays.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of Level 2 study in Author(s): The Open University

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Medicine transformed: on access to healthcare
Access to healthcare is important to all of us. Did the arrival of state medicine in the twentieth century mean that everyone had access to good medical services? If you fell sick in 1930 where could you get treatment from a GP, a hospital, a nurse? This free course, Medicine transformed: On access to healthcare, shows that in the early twentieth century, access to care was unequally divided. The rich could afford care; working men, women and children were helped by the state; others had to rely
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The history of medicine: A Scottish perspective
In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the approach to medicine was vastly different from today. Health is now recognised, at least in most European countries, as a universal right, but what was it like in the past? How did social and political boundaries affect access to treatment, and what were the treatments of the day? This free course, The history of medicine: A Scottish perspective, examines how Scottish healthcare institutions were influenced by these underlying social, economic, pol
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Working with dilemmas
Dilemmas are part of the fabric of organisational and individual life; these are often presented as the choice between two (or more) equally compelling propositions. In this free course, Working with dilemmas, you will focus on how to address dilemmas effectively. In particular, you will explore the extent to which dilemmas are or should be treated as choices between two extremes, and how the response to and resolution of dilemmas can move beyond binary choices to the reconciliation of opposites
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Language in the real world
This free course, Language in the real world, explains and illustrates why a knowledge about how language works (i.e. ‘linguistics’) is helpful – some might say essential – for different aspects of our everyday lives. It provides an introduction to ideas around what language is and to the field of Applied Linguistics, which is dedicated to exploring and addressing situations where language plays a crucial role. Author(s): Creator not set

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Dundee, jute and empire
Britain was the first country to industrialise, and it acquired the largest empire ever during this same period. But its sphere of economic influence extended far beyond the boundaries of the formal British Empire. This free course, Dundee, jute and empire, focuses on the economics of empire, using a case study of one town, Dundee in eastern Scotland, to explore this huge topic. Author(s): Creator not set

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The origins of the wars of the three kingdoms
From Catholic rebellion to Civil War, what happened during the latter years of the reign of Charles I that caused people to take up arms against their fellow citizens? This free course, The origins of the wars of the three kingdoms, looks at the background of the wars between England, Scotland and Ireland and how the king's actions led to the rift between royalists and parliamentarians. Author(s): Creator not set

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National identity in Britain and Ireland, 1780–1840
What is a ‘nation’? What is a ‘state’? Where have these ideas come from and how have they developed over time? This free course, National identity in Britain and Ireland, 1780-1840, explores how the United Kingdom of Britain and Ireland was formed. It then moves to analyse the distinctions between the terms ‘nation’ and ‘state’. Finally, it evaluates the role of national identities in British popular politics during the first half of the nineteenth century.
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Icarus: entering the world of myth
This free course, Icarus: entering the world of myth, will introduce you to one of the best-known myths from classical antiquity and its various re-tellings in later periods. You will begin by examining how the Icarus story connects with a number of other ancient myths, such as that of Theseus and the Minotaur. You will then be guided through an in-depth reading of Icarus’ story as told by the Roman poet Ovid, one of the most important and sophisticated figures in the history of ancient myth-m
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Introduction

What influenced Goya? Did Napoleon's invasion of Spain alter the course of Goya's career? This course will guide you through the works of Goya and the influences of the times in which he lived. Anyone with a desire to look for the influences behind the work of art will benefit from studying this course.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of Level 2 study in Author(s): The Open University

The Holocaust
This free course explores the Holocaust, as the destruction of European Jewry is commonly known. The mass killing represented by the Holocaust raises many questions concerning the development of European civilisation during the twentieth century. This course, therefore, covers essential ground if you wish to understand this development. First published on Fri, 05
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This free course, Continuing classical Latin, gives you the opportunity to hear a discussion of the development of the Latin language. First published on Mon, 18 Jan 2016 as Continuing classical Latin. To find out m
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Discovering Ancient Greek and Latin
The free course, Discovering Ancient Greek and Latin, gives a taste of what it is like to learn two ancient languages. It is for those who have encountered the classical world through translations of Greek and Latin texts and wish to know more about the languages in which these works were composed. First published on Thu, 29 Sep 2016 as Author(s): Creator not set

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