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Marketing in the 21st Century
This free course, Marketing in the 21st century, offers a managerial perspective on how to deliver more effective marketing in an organisation, regardless of whether it is based in the private, public or non-profit sector. This is achieved through a variety of learning techniques, including case studies, videos, activities and group discussions. Supporting this learning, students are encouraged to become critical thinkers about both how they undertake their own decisions, as well as how marketin
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References

Abowd, G., Atkeson, C. G., Brotherton, J., Enqvist, T., Gulley, P. and LeMon, J. (1998) ‘Investigating the capture, integration and access problem of ubiquitous computing in an educational setting’, Proceedings of CHI ‘98: Human Factors in Computing Systems, New York, ACM Press.
Bannon, L. J. and Kuutti, K. (1996) ‘Shifting perspectives on organizational memory: from storage to active remembering’,
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4.13.1 Standards and classification

ICTs depend on myriad standards in order to provide interconnectivity. If this was a computer science course, you would be learning about standard network protocols which enable computers to communicate with each other or with other devices, whether over the internet or from your computer to a network printer. Standards enable us to send email and browse websites without worrying about the underlying mechanisms (until they fail, forcing us to focus on the tool instead of our work).


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References

Albrow, M. (1970) Bureaucracy, London, Pall Mall.
Anderson, B. (1991) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, New York, Verso. (First published in 1983.)
Benneworth, P. and Henry, N. (2004) ‘Where is the added value in the cluster approach? Hermeneutic theorising, economic geography and clusters as a multiperspectival approach
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3.2 Institutions in flux

Although the implosion of the Soviet Union, after the dismantling of the Berlin Wall in 1989, has extended the flow of global capitalism, de Soto (2000) argues that the lack of capitalist institutions – and specifically legally enforceable rights to own property – has frustrated Western expectations about achieving increased prosperity through free-market economic development: ‘Ten years ago, few would have compared the former Soviet bloc nations to Latin America. But today they look as
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1 What does 'marketing' mean?

Activity 1

Before you start working through this course, take a moment to write down what you understand by the term ‘marketing’, either on the basis of your previous studies or the everyday use of the term.


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2.1 Looking at each of the possible alternative outcomes

Investment risk is synonymous with uncertainty of outcome, so it is logical to try to quantify risk by looking at the relative uncertainty, or probability, of each of the possible alternative outcomes.

Suppose that we are interested in investing in the shares of Company X, and want to know:

  • What is the mean or average expected total return for the next year?

  • What is the degree of risk or uncertainty in this mean figure?


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7.1 Introduction

We have taken a brief excursion through three different perspectives on decision making (the rational-economic, the psychological and the social) and we have considered how we think about risk from these different perspectives. How can you use these ideas to improve your own and others' decision making? The first way is to use them to develop greater insight into the pressures and influences that may be affecting how you process information, think, and decide. By becoming more aware of these
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6.6 The social construction of unknown risk

While some risks can be quantified, many are unknown. In the face of such uncertainty our approach to risk depends on fundamental assumptions about the way the world works which cannot be readily subject to empirical test. Different social groups have different approaches to uncertainty. Schwarz and Thompson (1990) characterise these in terms of what they describe as four myths of nature. Adams (1995) has conceptualised these in terms of a ball on a surface (
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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1.9 Conclusion

If we try to recapitulate what we have done in this course two main areas need to be considered: is there likely to be a European identity in the near future? and how important are national sentiments going to be?

While it could be said that by the end of the twentieth century the EU had become a reasonably integrated economic space politically, and especially at the cultural level, progress was limited. But even at the economic level, areas like labour mobility were still very low in t
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1.12.2 Constructing discursive spaces

Finally, the notion of discursive space draws attention to the broader social practices which construct such spaces. Thus social scientists and discourse researchers have been interested in the practices of production of newspapers and the media and in the ways in which economic and technological developments construct discursive spaces. E-mail, the internet and computer-mediated communication are good examples of how changing practices produce new spaces which construct new kinds of discursi
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2.2 The challenge of methods

The methodological challenges facing the social sciences are best outlined in the form of a series of questions about how we should engage in research and what kind of research attitude is appropriate.

  • Should social scientists look to the assumptions and methods developed in the natural sciences or develop their own assumptions and methods?

  • Do the objects which we study in the social sciences, such as the self, society, the economy, i
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References

Audit Commission (2000) Another Country. Implementing Dispersal Under the Immigration and Asylum Act 1999, London, Audit Commission for Local Authorities and the National Health Service in England and Wales.
Bloch, A. (2002) Refugees' Opportunities and Barriers in Employment and Training, Department of Work and Pensions Research Report No.179, Norwich, HMSO.
Bloc
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Introduction

This OpenLearn course is an adapted extract from the Open University course DD208 Welfare, crime and society.


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3.2 Counting the crime problem

What kind of evidence would support the claims of the common-sense narrative? Where would it come from and where would you find it? Most social scientists would start with the people who actually spend their time counting these things – governments. Government agencies of all kinds spend a great deal of time and money producing official statistics, recording crime rates, conviction rates, the size of prison populations, and so on.

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3.3 The downside of the new economy

During the US boom of the 1990s, some economists attributed the paradox of economic growth, rising productivity, but stable or only modestly rising wage costs, to the growing sense of insecurity in the labour force (Greenspan, 1998). Employment insecurity is also emphasised by sociologists such as Ulrich Beck (2000) and Richard Sennett (1998). This section outlines some of their arguments because they are central to those who take a critical view of the new economy. Their arguments also conta
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Introduction

This course introduces ideas which are likely to be of interest to a range of professionals interested in English language education, and is accessible to those who have not yet undertaken masters level study but might be interested in doing so in the future. It includes a variety of activities which help learners to relate theoretical discussion to professional practice.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of postgraduate study in Author(s): The Open University

Introduction

What value does art have in the school curriculum? This unit, primarily aimed at colleagues teaching art in schools, explores the justification for including art in the school curriculum together with some of the current criticisms commonly heard.

Find out more about studying with The Open University by visiting our online prospect
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