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8.3 Relationships

A relationship is an association between entities that has a meaning in a given context, which needs to be recorded.

In the context of our university example, one relationship that is of interest is that between a member of staff and a student being counselled. Figure 14 shows one way of representing some of this data.

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Conclusion

Relational database systems underpin the majority of the managed data storage in computer systems. In this course we have considered database development as an instance of the waterfall model of the software development life cycle. We have seen that the same activities are required to develop and maintain databases that meet user requirements.


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1.7 Testing

The aim of testing is to uncover errors in the design and implementation of the database, its structure, constraints and associated user and management support. Testing is usually considered to involve two main tasks – validation and verification. Without adequate testing users will have little confidence in their data processing.

Validation answers the question: has the right database been developed to meet the requirements? It attempts to confirm that the right database has been co
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1.6.1 Realising the design

So far we have been concerned only with the specification of a logical schema. We now need our database to be created according to the definitions we have produced. For an implementation with a relational DBMS, this will involve the use of SQL to create tables and constraints that satisfy the logical schema description and the choice of appropriate storage schema (if the DBMS permits that level of control).

One way to achieve this is to write the appropriate SQL DDL statements into a f
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Key skill assessment unit: Problem solving
Problem solving runs through many activities. Often problems are contexts for focusing ideas and stimulating further investigation or discussion. Framing an issue appropriately, identifying why it is a problem, recognising factors that might have a bearing on it and outlining what an acceptable resolution or solution might look like, are important approaches. Improving your problem solving skills means raising your awareness of this process. In this free course, Key skill assessment unit: Proble
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Youth work: Introducing policy
In this free course, Youth work: Introducing policy, we will look at the meaning of policy, how it works as a mechanism for persuading people to behave in particular ways, its role in shaping our understandings of young people, and the role practitioners can play in mediating and influencing policy. First published on Thu, 16 Feb 2012 as Author(s): Creator not set

2.4 Organising your study - keeping a learning diary

If you have found this approach to learning interests you, you might like to take the analysis a stage further. To do Activity 4, you need to be studying a course so that you are engaged in learning on a regular basis. To examine your learning patterns, try keeping a 'learning diary' over a short period of time - at least a week - or maybe during the period that you are studying a particular section of your course.

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1.1 Examples

Each activity is followed by a discussion and examples of the responses of two students. Both students are studying Open University courses that will eventually count towards a degree. These are nine month distance learning courses.

Course material is delivered to students by post, email or online. Their assignments are submitted by post or email, marked either by a computer or a tutor, and returned. Open University students are provided with a tutor, regular tutorials and guidance on c
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions terms and conditions )and is used under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence.

Course image: r2hox
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9 Notes to help you complete your assessment

To complete your portfolio, you must include a contents page indicating how your reflective commentary in Part A and your evidence in Part B are related.

Click here to view Figure 1 (PDF, 1 page, 0.1MB)

Although the requirements of Parts A and B are listed separately, you should think of them as parts of a whole in which each part r
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7.1 Evidence required

Part A is about showing that you can develop a strategy for using and improving your communication skills, that you can monitor your progress, and can evaluate your performance and strategy overall. The evidence you present needs to show what you have done as you worked through the processes of planning strategically, monitoring and evaluating in the production and presentation of work for Part B. Part A must, therefore, relate directly to the work you present for Part B. Thus, you wil
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4.6 Not knowing what to say

It's perfectly possible to learn from what other people say without contributing anything yourself. After all, at a face-to-face tutorial some people won't say anything, perhaps because they feel shy. Working online means you can't see other people smiling in encouragement, so it can be hard to take the plunge and join in.

One good thing about online discussions is that they generally happen over a longer period. This gives you plenty of time to think about what you want to say, and eve
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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1 3. From experience to interpretation

In almost all films, the visual story is completed first, dialogue and sound effects are then added and music is composed last of all. However, when Disney made the animated film Fantasia in 1940, they reversed the process, producing animations based on pieces of classical music. You may like to look at the Disney archives website, or read some information about the making of Fantasia from the Disney family museum website.

At the time, this was thought of as a way to popularise c
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2. Starters

We all have pictures in our heads but some people use them more than others.

‘Doing’ can often be the most powerful way to learn. Before discussing other people's thoughts on visualisation, it is probably worthwhile to spend some time exploring some visualisation activities with your colleagues. This should enable you to consider the next section from an experiential perspective.


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Acknowledgements

This course was written by Professor Grahame F. Thompson, Professor of Political Economy at The Open University. Researching the political economy of the international system and the process of ‘globalization’.

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Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying Social Sciences. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance, and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.


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3 Lesson delivery

The way in which we deliver our lessons will have an impact on the students' interest and engagement in the work. If we appear enthused and excited by the subject that we are studying, then at least some of this enthusiasm will inevitably rub off on our class.

The successful teacher will deliver his or her lessons with a sense of:

  • Pace: keeping the class and the learning moving forwards.

  • Clarity: knowing where the les
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1 Teaching and behaviour

The quality of our teaching inevitably has an impact on the behaviour of our students: a student who is busy learning is far less likely to think about misbehaving. Using a range of strategies, positive approaches and rewards will have a positive impact on behaviour on a day-to-day basis. However, one of the key factors in getting sustained good behaviour is ensuring that your students are fully engaged with the work that they are doing.

There are many factors that can contribute to mis
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References

Alexander, R. J., Rose, J. and Woodhead, C. (1992) Curriculum Organisation and Classroom Practice in Primary Schools: a discussion paper, London, Department of Education and Science.
Awdurdod Cymwysterau, Cwricwlwym ac Asesu (ACCAC, or the Qualifications, Curriculum and Assessment Authority for Wales) (2000a) Desirable Outcomes for Children's Learning before Compulsory School Age, Cardiff, ACCAC.

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