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3.3.1 Multisensory teaching for students

Guyer et al. (1993) tested the effectiveness of the Wilson Reading System for improving spelling in higher education students with dyslexia. They compared this technique to a non-phonic approach that teaches visual memory techniques to help students to remember frequently misspelled words. A control group of students with dyslexia but who had specifically requested no intervention formed the control group. Both intervention groups were tutored in the given technique for two, one-hour sessions
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3.1.1 Treatment or management?

In the preceding paragraph you will notice that we talked generally about the treatment of conditions, but referred to ‘managing’ dyslexia. Why did we do this? It relates to the following important general issues:

Is treatment (i.e. intervention) warranted? We mentioned this issue when we were discussing sociocultural or personal distress based definitions of abnormality. Intervention is not always desi
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3.1 Thinking about intervention

So far we have looked at issues relating to how we define ‘abnormal’ behaviour, and how we think about explanations. Now we will consider the more practical issue of how to approach the treatment of such difficulties. As in the previous section, we will discuss behavioural, cognitive and biological perspectives on treatment and consider specific techniques from each perspective that are applicable to the management of dyslexia.


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2.4.2 Differences in sensory, perceptual and motor function

As we saw in our discussion of cognitive explanations, there has been longstanding debate over the possible contribution of perceptual problems to dyslexia. Subjectively, many children and adults with dyslexic difficulties do report ‘visual symptoms’ when trying to read. These include letters and words appearing to move or ‘blur’ on the page, particular difficulties with small, crowded print, and complaints of ‘glare’ or other kinds of visual discomfort (see Figure 5).


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2.2.1 The phonological processing deficit

Recall Alexander Faludy's difficulties in learning to read and write, and the other behavioural characteristics associated with having dyslexia. You might have noticed that many features of dyslexia point to a difficulty with some aspects of memory. That is, people with dyslexia have difficulty with tasks that require short-term memory processing such as mental arithmetic, writing and learning new information. However, these tasks have an additional feature in common: they contain a phonologi
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1.8 Reflecting on definitions of ‘abnormality’

The main thing to remember is that the way that ‘abnormality’ is defined will have consequences for the method of identification. It will also impact on people's expectations of their future development. For example, we discussed the way that dyslexia is defined in relation to a person's IQ. Does that mean that if someone has a low IQ and an even lower reading age we should adjust our expectations of what that person can achieve with help, or let IQ influence how much help is offered? Sim
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Introduction

Target setting for pupil attainment is seen as being a means of raising standards in schools through placing pupil achievement at the core of school planning. This unit will help governors of secondary schools ensure that realistic yet challenging targets are set and provide guidance on assessing the data that needs to be evaluated to come to such decisions.


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Acknowledgements

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Author

Sue Platt has been a school governor for 21 years, at both primary and secondary p
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5.2.1 Technical and usable accessibility

An online resource needs to be usable for disabled users as well as accessible. Lawton Henry (2002) makes the distinction between ‘technical accessibility’ and ‘usable accessibility’. We will illustrate this distinction with two examples.

  1. In a web-based example, a blind user listening to a screen reader may technically be able to access the data presented in a table, i.e. the screen reader may be able to read the content of each cell in
    Author(s): The Open University

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4.8 Activity task

1. Read through the four scenarios below and choose one to answer the associated questions.

Work out your answers to the questions posed.

You will find your list of challenging activities and solutions useful here. In a real situati
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4.1.1 Disability discrimination legislation

This activity uses the UK Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) Part 4 as the basis for discussing the concept of making reasonable adjustments. The DDA may not apply to you directly, but many countries have similar legislation. We feel the underlying principles of such legislation reflect the moral standpoint or the right thing to do, regardless of whether or not legislation exists.


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3.14 References

BBC (2005) ‘Men's health’, London, British Broadcasting Corporation, http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/mens_health/index.shtml (Accessed 31 July 2007).

British Dyslexia Association (2005) ‘What is dyslexia?’. Reading, British Dyslexia Association, http://www.bdadyslexia.org.uk/extra329.html (Accessed 31 July 2007).

RNIB (2005) ‘About sight loss – changing the way we think about blindness’ [online], London, Royal National Institute of the Blind (Accessed 31 July 2007).


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3.3.3 Screen readers and speech synthesisers

A screen reader monitors the information sent from the computer to the screen. It makes decisions about which part of the screen to read and in what order, then passes this information to either a speech synthesiser or a Braille display. All screen readers support speech synthesisers and most support Braille displays.

The first speech synthesisers were hardware, usually a small box that sat on the desktop and had its own speaker, or a card that fitted inside the computer and used extern
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2.5 Resources

Barnes, C. (1992) Disabling Imagery and the Media, The British Council of Organisations of Disabled People, Halifax, Ryburn Publishing.


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2.2 Defining disability

So, what do we mean by the term ‘disability’? The Open University doesn't define the term, but offers services to any person with ‘a disability, health problem, mental-health difficulty or specific learning difficulty (such as dyslexia) that affects their ability to study’ (Open to Your Needs booklet, pdf file, 2005).

In the UK the main legislation used to improve the treatment of disabled people and to manage resources is the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA).

T
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2.1.3 Handicap

A disadvantage for a given individual, resulting from an impairment or disability, that limits or prevents the fulfilment of a role that is normal (depending on age, sex and social and cultural factors) for that individual.

If you are interested in political aspects of disability awareness, the DEMOS ‘Disability Awareness’ module is a good place to start. This topic also studied in two OU courses: K222 Care, Welfare and Community for Social Workers and D218 Social Policy:
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1.5.4 References

CSR Europe (undated) ‘Disability: facts and figures’ [online], Brussels, CSR Europe, www.csreurope.org/csrinfo/csrdisability/DisabilityFactsandfigures/ (Accessed 14 August 2007).

National Disability Team (2000–2005) ‘Statistics – On Course’, Chelmsford, National Disability Team, (Accessed 14 August 2007).


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References

Hughes, M. (1991) Closing the Learning Gap, Network Educational Press Ltd.
Lucas, W. (2001) Power Up Your Mind, Nicholas Brearley Publishing.
Rose, C. (1985) Accelerated Learning, Accelerated Learning Systems Ltd.
UNESCO (1977) Suggestive, accelerative learning and teaching: A manual of classroom procedures base
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1.2 Challenges to child-centredness: the curriculum and assessment 5–14 programme

In Scotland, the Scottish Curriculum and Assessment 5–14 Programme is an essential part of the initiative that has been promoted by HM Inspectorate as upholding and maintaining the standard of pupils' achievements in Scottish schools. A Scottish Education Department (SED) consultative paper enjoined the inspectorate to ‘pay particular attention in their inspection of schools to the extent to which schools and education authorities have had regard to the national curricular policies’ (SE
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