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4.11.2 Substantial ultra vires

This is where the delegated legislation goes beyond what Parliament intended.

In R v Secretary of State for Education and Employment, ex parte National Union of Teachers (2000) QBD, the High Court determined that an SI concerning teachers’ pay and appraisal arrangements went beyond the powers provided under the Education Act 1996. Therefore, the delegated legislation was declared to be ultra vires on substantive grounds.


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3.3.3 Committee stage

At this stage a detailed examination of each clause of the Bill is undertaken by a committee of between 16 and 50 MPs. The committee subjects the Bill to line-by-line examination and makes amendments. The committee which carries out these discussions comprises MPs representing the different political parties roughly in proportion to the overall composition of the House of Commons. There will therefore be a Government majority on the committee. However, an attempt is made to ensure representat
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3.1 Types of Bill

Figure 7
Figure 7 The Houses of Parliament.

An Act of Parliament starts off as a Bill. A Bill is a proposal for a new piece of legislation that
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4.3 Summary of Part C

After studying Part C you should be able to:

  • explain the problems associated with formulating rules;

  • identify whether a rule is too specific;

  • identify whether a rule is too general;

  • identify solutions to a problem of rule formulation.


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2.3 Summary of part B

There is no right to privacy in UK law. Individuals who allege an invasion of privacy rely on one of the following:

  • breach of the right to confidence, which is a common law right;

  • Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights.

To succeed in an action for ‘breach of the right to confidence’ you would have to prove:

  • that the information had the necessary ‘quality of
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2.1 Treaties, conventions and constitutions

International human rights are part of a much wider area, public international law, which in broad terms encompasses law relating to the legal rights, duties and powers of one nation state in relation to its dealings with other nation states. These rights, duties and powers are set out in international treaties or conventions. Such treaties and conventions may be global in their application or restricted to certain regions of the world. Reference to a work on international human rights treati
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2.3 Application of the ECHR

The ECHR places an important emphasis on individual rights whilst trying to strike a balance between individual and collective rights.

Activity 1 Drafting a charter of rights

0 hours 15 minutes
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3.3 Have I given due consideration to units of measurement?

Many mathematical problems include units of measurement. The measurement may be of length, weight, time, temperature or currency. The UK uses both metric and imperial units.

The table below gives the units of length that are in everyday use in the UK, but you may know some others.

MetricAuthor(s): The Open University

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Try some yourself

1 Without using your calculator solve the following calculations.

  • (a) 3 + 5 × 2 = ?

  • (b) 12 − 6 + 6 = ?

  • (c) 6 + (5 + 4) × 3 = ?

  • (
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3.2 Have I used the correct order for my calculation?

When calculating an answer it is important that you give careful consideration to the order of operations used in the calculation. If you are using a mixture of operations remember that certain operations take priority in a calculation. Consider the following, apparently, simple sum.

   1 + 2 × 3 = ?

What answer would you give?

Did you give 7 as your response, or 9?

The correct answer is 7 but can you explain why?

If you have a calculator handy, check that it
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1.4.1 Try some yourself

1 Round a measurement of 1.059 metres:

  • (a) to the nearest whole number of metres;

  • (b) to two decimal places;

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1.3.1 Try some yourself

1 Round the numbers below:

  • (a) to the nearest 10.

  • (b) to the nearest 100.

  • (c) to the nearest 1000.

  325 089,  45 982,  11 985
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2.7 Powers and roots

There are several symbols for powers and roots: for instance, 24 means ‘2 to the power 4’. An alternative to 24 is 24, where the symbol Author(s): The Open University

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3.3: Scatterplots

In recent years, graphical displays have come into prominence because computers have made them quick and easy to produce. Techniques of data exploration have been developed which have revolutionised the subject of statistics, and today no serious data analyst would carry out a formal numerical procedure without first inspecting the data by eye. Nowhere is this demonstrated more forcibly than in the way a scatterplot reveals a relationship between two variables.

Look at Author(s): The Open University

Discharging a Whitehead Torpedo - Edison films 1900
From Edison films catalog Taken on board the US torpedo boat Morris It shows the crew loading a Whitehead torpedo into the tube and then discharging it The torpedo can be seen running along the surface of the water for a distance of over half a mile 75 feet 1125
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6 What you should present

This assessment course has two parts. Part A requires you to show what you did to plan, monitor, evaluate and reflect upon your skills. Part B requires you to select examples of your work that demonstrate what you have done to improve and apply your skills. Together the two parts form a portfolio of your achievements. You can use the guidance, Bookmarks and Skills Sheets included in the OpenLearn course U529_1 Key skills – making a difference to help you structure and present your wo
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Copyright © 2016 The Open University

The origins of the wars of the three kingdoms
From Catholic rebellion to Civil War, what happened during the latter years of the reign of Charles I that caused people to take up arms against their fellow citizens? This free course, The origins of the wars of the three kingdoms, looks at the background of the wars between England, Scotland and Ireland and how the king's actions led to the rift between royalists and parliamentarians.Author(s): Creator not set

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Celebrating our newsmakers
http://concordia.ca/now | http://www.concordia.ca/now/newsmakers/ Alan Shepard, president and vice-chancellor of Concordia University, recently welcomed some of the institution's newsmakers into his home for a warm celebration of their achievements. By speaking to members of the media about their research and providing expert commentary on subjects ranging from the royal family to climate change, Concordia's newsmakers help to keep Concordia's name in the public eye. Cheers to our newsmakers!
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Series - the ratio test
This video describes how to use the ratio test to determine whether a series converges or diverges.
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"DMC Upside:" Military Friendly School designation
Del Mar College was named a "Friendly Military School" for the "2013 Guide To Military Friendly Schools" by G.I. Jobs magazine. The honor puts Del Mar in the top 20 percent of all schools nationwide in serving U.S. military veterans through higher education. This segment of the "DMC Upside" television program was featured in the December 2012 edition, which airs on cable channel 19 in Corpus Christi. The "DMC Upside" is produced by DMC TV.
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