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1.2.2 Boundaries of difference

One of the things that language does is define and give a name to differences between people – to delineate the boundaries that separate them. In the mental health field, the ‘mad’ are at one end of the social divide that separates the ‘normal’ from the ‘abnormal’. They are ‘the other’, a point made in the article by Perkins (above): ‘To be mad is to be defined as “other”’.

This is a recurring theme in the mental health field. In the following passage Abina Par
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you t
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2.12.3 Scientific advances

Advances in science may have dramatic effects on future therapeutic relationships. As specific funding becomes available for testing CAM, and as CAM practitioners start accepting the idea that their future sustainability may depend on them citing scientific research to establish their claims, more information will become available about which aspects of the therapeutic relationship are more, or less, beneficial. This may include research testing the hypothesis that elements of the CAM therape
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2.2 Users' experiences of the therapeutic relationship

CAM users may seek a very different type of therapeutic relationship from those they experience with orthodox practitioners. Some people may want to spend more time with a CAM practitioner than they do with their GP, to have more say in determining the frequency of access to practitioners, to have more control over what happens in the consultation room, and to have more choice about the treatments they are given.

In any therapeutic encounter, people want to be treated with respect, to b
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6.3 (b) Switching to renewable energy sources

The use of renewable energy usually involves environmental impacts of some kind, but these are normally lower than those of fossil or nuclear sources.

Approaches (a) and (b) are essentially 'supply-side' measures – applied at the supply end of the long chain that leads from primary energy production to useful energy consumption.


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5.1 Energy services

Except in the form of food, no one needs or wants energy as such. That is to say, no one wants to eat coal or uranium, drink oil, breathe natural gas or be directly connected to an electricity supply. What people want is energy services – those services which energy uniquely can provide. Principally, these are: heat, for warming rooms, for washing and for processing materials; lighting, both interior and exterior; motive power, for a myriad of uses from pumping fluids to lifti
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4.3.2 Wave power

When winds blow over the world's oceans, they cause waves. The power in such waves, as they gradually build up over very long distances, can be very great – as anyone watching or feeling that power eventually being dissipated on a beach will know.

Various technologies for harnessing the power of waves have been developed over the past few decades, of which the 'oscillating water column' (OWC) is perhaps the most widely used. In an OWC, the rise and fall of the waves inside an enclosed
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2.2 We are part of nature

Take a few minutes to look around at your surroundings before you read on. What do you see? Obviously this depends on where you are at the moment: at home, at work, or perhaps travelling in between, or maybe you have the misfortune to be laid up in hospital. Possibly like me you are at home. I am fortunate to have a study where I do much of my writing and you won't be surprised to hear that I'm looking at a computer screen at the moment. What else can I see? Books and bookshelves, furniture o
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2.6 Mathematical communication

When you looked at the title of this reading, did you experience unease? Most people shudder at the thought of dealing with anything mathematical, remembering the torturous lessons at school trying to grapple with calculus, statistics and logic. Yet most of us use mathematical communicati
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1.3 Activities

Activity 2A sets the scene by focusing on the 'big picture' where you will be asked to choose between four alternative visions of the future. This activity radically shifts the scale of investigation from the personal to the global. However, as with all systems, the emergent behaviour of society is a resul
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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce
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5.1 The state of ‘Being’

The structure of Section 5 is set out in Figure 8. Use this as a way of keeping track of the argument I am making.

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7.2.4 Microstructure

There are many practical requirements for a film at the microscopic level.

Firstly, it must be firmly bonded to the surface on which it's deposited. A poorly adhered film can peel or flake away under the stresses of later processing steps, or may lead to a reliability issue that will plague the device throughout its lifetime. Similarly, issues can arise with wetting if a deposited material prefers to form droplets on the surface rather than spreading out into a uniform film. A thin adhe
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6.1 Why is resonance important?

This section aims to take you through some general ideas about vibrations, which will help you understand the principles behind the resonant behaviour of the AFM probe tip. Vibrations and oscillations crop up in many contexts. They can be modelled mathematically and form a general topic in mathematics about vibrations and oscillations in which the appropriate balances between forces and accelerations are formulated into differential equations.

Students of physics and chemistry also get
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5.1.1 London forces

The distribution of charge in one atom or molecule occurs naturally as the electrons move around the nucleus. If a second atom or molecule is introduced, the charge distribution from the first will induce a complementary charge distribution in the second. Looking at Figure 22 you can see that the negative bias
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3.7.2 The hybrid probe

Where the benefit to be gained from combining the narrow-angled silicon tip with the super-light, any-shape silicon nitride cantilever outweighs the expense and difficulty of the more complex process sequence, AFM probes can be made with silicon tips on silicon nitride cantilevers. Figure 14 shows one such pr
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7.2 The professional engineer

It has been suggested that there are four main criteria that identify a profession:

Custody of a clearly definable and valuable body of knowledge and understanding associated with a long period of training.

A strong unitary organization which ensures that the profession generally speaks with 'one voice'.

Clearly defined and rigorous entry standards, backed up by a requirement to register with the profession
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5.13 Conclusion of the BoT enquiry

The BoT enquiry issued two reports at the end of the enquiry, one authored by the chair, Mr Rothery, the other by the two other assessors. The Rothery report is Paper 3, linked below. They agreed about most of the issues in contention, as follows (Paper 3, page 47 of report).

  1. There is no evidence to show that there has been any movement or settlement in the foundations of the pier
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4.6 Photographs showing the detail: debris field

The relatively clear platform of pier 3 is also visible in Figure 28. There are several pieces of shaped metal on the floor, at least one appears to be a bolt. A close-up of the floor, taken looking east, is shown in Author(s): The Open University

16.4 Managing for emergence and self-organisation

It might be useful to re-read Box 4 before starting this section. In this example, the terms ‘open’ and ‘closed’ were used on several occasions. You have already encountered the term ‘closed system’. You were told that human beings are closed systems in terms of inputs t
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