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2.2 Slavery reform

Some of the first international concerns over human rights, as they would now be recognised, were expressed about slavery at the end of the eighteenth century. Somerset's case in 1772 challenged the acceptance of slavery in the UK. This case is regarded as a turning point, as statutory abolition followed in the UK. Out of this changing social, political and legal attitude towards slavery grew a movement which sought to prohibit slavery internationally. It was not possible to secure the freedo
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4.1.3 Global positioning system (GPS)

These days, it is possible to buy a device known as a global positioning system (GPS) to tell you where you are. Receivers are made for aircraft, ships, ground vehicles, and (as the one shown in Figure 6) for carrying in the hand.

Figure 6

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2.3 Summary

This section showed that computers pervade our daily lives, but that many of them are invisible to us.

It investigated the information requirements of certain individuals, such as shoppers and doctors. You learned that their requirements can range from the simple and obvious to the complex and not so obvious.

You also learned that it is not just individuals who require information: it is also essential to the operation of organisations. The example of loyalty cards was used
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The ‘why’ and ‘what’ of educational leadership and management
This free course, The 'why' and 'what' of educational leadership and management, introduces you to researching educational leadership and management and how undertaking research can contribute to both good practice and the building of leadership capacity. First published on Wed, 17 Feb 2016 as Author(s): Creator not set

D Solving simple equations with one unknown

Now we wish to move on to equations where you can find a solution. The work that you have done so far on simplifying and rearranging equations will be used here.

Example 3

Consider the equation 4x = 24. We call x the unknown and we want to find the value of x which makes
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C Changing the subject of an equation

Now, we will look at rearranging an equation. Before we do this, we would like you to look at some general rules for adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing positive and negative numbers. Symbols like a or x are simply ‘standing in’ for numerical values, so where a term is positive or negative, it should be treated in the same way as the rules below.

General ru
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Solving equations using algebraic techniques

In mathematics, equations are used a great deal in arriving at a solution to a problem. In this section, we wish to refresh your memory of how you can solve an equation using algebraic techniques. We have assumed that you have a prior knowledge of algebra and need reintroducing to it, rather than starting from scratch.

This section is in five parts.

A Why use algebra?

This is a brief explanation of why algebraic techniques are useful.

B Simplifying algebraic
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Unit image: Courtesy of banlon1964 Flickr [accessed 27 October 2006]

All other material within this unit originated at the Open University

1. Join the 200,000 students currently studying with The Open University.


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4.3.3 After the exam

When you come out of the exam try to forget it. Going over what you have written with other students can make you worry about areas you haven't covered. Go and enjoy a planned treat as a personal reward for all your hard work.


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4.3.1 Start writing

Using the format of introduction, main body and conclusion outlined in Section 3, write up your answer to the question.


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3.12.4 Modern Languages

In modern languages courses, as you would expect, the emphasis includes listening and speaking skills as well as reading and writing skills. To learn to be creative and spontaneous in the language you are studying, you need to practise listening and speaking throughout the course and in revision. Working through t
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7.3 Review the whole process

Before you file away your assignment and return to your current study, spend a little time reviewing the whole process of preparing, exploring, implementing and reviewing your assignment. Review what you did and how you did it in each of the four phases. Trying to identify just one thing that went well and one thing that you could have done differently can help you in your future study. Remember that your review should focus on the process of the preparation
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1 The experience of reading

The best way to develop your understanding of the reading process is to follow the principles of the Kolb learning cycle, by doing some reading and then reflecting on your experience. To this end, Activity 1 asks you to read an extract from an article by Richard Layard (2003) titled ‘The secrets of happiness’ which appeared in the New Statesman. To keep the task manageable I have reduced the article to half its original length and, for ease of reference, paragraph num
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4.2.1 Theories of globalisation

There are many different theories relating to globalisation. Some see globalisation as positive or beneficial. These theories argue that globalisation will encourage ‘good things’ like the growth of online communities that can span the world and might be able to break free of repressive regimes. Others suggest that there will be negative consequences to globalisation. They argue that globalisation makes it easier for jobs to be exported to wherever labour is cheapest. In this view there a
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7.1 Translating your plan

You have now reached the stage when it is time to translate your plan, whatever its form, into the assignment itself. It is likely that this will be a first attempt at the exercise – a first draft. You may be one of the lucky few who only needs to write one draft. Or, if you have taken some time over your planning, one draft before the final version may be enough. But if you are finding it difficult to reconcile opposing points of view or to fit in a great deal of information, you may need
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3 The purpose of writing

Let's take a step back and think about why you are writing assignments. As with most tasks, if you have an understanding of why you are doing something and how it fits into the bigger picture, it is easier to define what is required of you and therefore to do a good job.

So, what do you see as the reasons for writing assignments? Here are some suggestions:

  • to meet the assessment requirements of my course;

  • to demonstrate my under
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6.2.2 Representing visual and symbolic texts

We saw that when you discuss your judgements of a visual text such as the landscape painting or The Madonna and Child, you talk about its ‘composition’: the way the ‘picture space’ is organised; the relationships between ‘foreground’ and ‘background’, and between ‘figures’. You discuss the way ‘perspective’ is used in the painting to show ‘depth’; the painting's tonal range’, and its uses of ‘colour’, ‘shape’, ‘line’; ‘light’ and ‘shade
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6.2.1 Quoting from written texts

We have seen that when you are discussing a poem, you talk about its ‘rhythms’ or movement, its patterns of sound such as ‘rhyme’, and its ‘imagery’ and ‘syntax’, quoting words, phrases and lines from the poem as evidence of the points you want to make about it. And this applies to play-texts and novels, too. As you discuss the ‘characters’ involved, you quote parts of their ‘dialogue’ or passages from the ‘narrator's’ descriptions of them. You also quote
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6.2 Different kinds of ‘evidence’

The terms you use and the ways in which you support your argument depend on the subject you are studying and what kind of text you are talking or writing about.


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6.1 Making a convincing case

If you were talking to a friend about a picture hanging on your living-room wall, you might say: ‘I really like that portrait because the man looks so lifelike’. That is, you'd make some kind of judgement about the painting. (I've never heard anyone say ‘I really like that portrait because of that little white brush stroke in the top right-hand corner’.) So, in effect, you turn the process we have just been through on its head. When you are communicating your ideas to other peo
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