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3.2.1 Try some yourself

Activity 37

1.3.1 Try some yourself

Activity 6

The new home owners from Example 4 above want to price grass seed, as well as the turf (transport only). The best buy seems to be loose seed, which says ‘1 kilo covers 80 m2’. They wonder what len
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1.1 Squares

In general, to square a number, multiply it by itself. This is denoted by writing a small ‘2’ to the top right of the number,

e.g. 4 squared, written 42, is 4 × 4 = 16.


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Digital Nepal
Nepal is one of the poorest countries in the world, so just how has it managed to develop a wireless network and promote innovation? This collection explores how Nepal has developed its digital technological infrastructure, how it is still developing from a complex political background and gives a sense of how different cultures around the world relate to digital technology. The videos look at the country's recent history, with particular focus on education, health, language and the economy. Th
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

References

Alexander, G. (2002) eGaia: Growing a Peaceful, Sustainable Earth through Communications, Florida, Lighthouse Books.
Allinson, C.W. and Hayes, J. (1996) 'The cognitive style index: a measure of intuition-analysis for organizational
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2.7 Ecological footprinting

How do we practically re-engage with the world and breakaway from the confines of reductionist thinking? Since we are both part of the problem and part of the solution, we need to start collecting Author(s): The Open University

1.1.2 The origin

The origin is the point on the graph where the x axis value (the output) and the y axis value (the total costs) are both zero.


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3.4 The importance of understanding attitudes

One of the most important phenomena for a social marketer to understand is that of ‘attitudes’. Having said this, this is not a straightforward issue as there is much disagreement about the nature of attitudes, how they are formed, and how they determine our behaviour. Attitude theory research is a key focus for consumer behaviour theorists and derives from the field of psychology.

There are many definitions of attitude, for example, ‘the predisposition of the individual to evalua
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2.3 Reasons for social marketing

Your thoughts should already have suggested reasons why social marketing can be an effective approach to dealing with social problems and issues. We will now consider some of these and also arguments against the use of marketing within this context. Three key reasons for adopting a social marketing approach are:

  1. The power of marketing – The power of marketing principles and techniques in the hands of the commercial sector cannot be denied. M
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4.1 Introduction

The 1970s marked a period in which the cessation of the ‘normal’ period of full-time employment at 60 or 65 years had become the accepted orthodoxy. The personal lives of older people had thus become constituted outside the domain of paid employment and within the arena of public and private welfare. As we illustrated in the preceding section, pensions, organised around fixed ages of retirement based on chronological measurements of age, played a crucial role in this process. Further, as
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2 Explaining fertility decline from a feminist perspective

Feminist theory underpins one of the most influential historiographies of fertility decline and it allows us to foreground gender as a dominant feature in questions of heterosexuality and parenthood. This is not to suggest that divisions of class, ‘race’, (dis)ability and generation are unimportant in this historical phenomenon, and any full understanding of fertility decline would be incomplete without including them. But in this unit the main focus will be on gender and these other soci
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1.2 Defining parenthood

As a starting point, we need to distinguish parenthood from parenting. Parenthood is more about the role, social status and meanings associated with being a parent, of bringing children into the world and having children to look after. Parenting, on the other hand, is associated with the activities of looking after children and raising them to adulthood. Parenting can be undertaken by a range of people: a man, a woman, a relative or an unrelated carer. It implies a sustained
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2.2.2 Positive integers: binary numbers

Just as a denary number system uses ten different digits (0, 1, 2, 3, … 9), a binary number system uses two (0, 1).

Once again the idea of positional notation is important. You have just seen that the weightings which apply to the digits in a denary number are the exponents of ten. With binary numbers, where only two digits are used, the weightings applied to the digits are exponents of two.

The rightmost bit is given the weighting of 2°, which is 1. The ne
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1.5.1 Different types of moving image

On paper, you can show movement by a series of diagrams each with a very small change. Figure 9 illustrates such a scenario. This has its uses, as it allows the process to be studied very carefully.


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1.4.1 The role of images

We can use images in several ways.

  • To motivate, to attract the attention of the user, to amuse and to persuade. These uses are particularly important in advertising and marketing.

  • To communicate information. This is often exploited in computer-based learning materials.

  • To help overcome language barriers. This approach is widely used in instruction manuals for consumer items.

  • To support interaction. Fo
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1.3.3 Choosing colours with the right connotations

When you use a colour, you should think about what it is likely to mean to the people who look at it, as colours can have different connotations. Colours can even make people feel different. For example, pink has been shown to have a calming effect on emotionally disturbed people.

These connotations are partly cultural, so you may find they do not ring true for you if you are a member of a non-western culture, such as Chinese or Indian. For example, in western culture, red is often used
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1.3.2 The characteristics of colour

Screens can only display a subset of the colours visible to the human eye. This limits the accuracy of colour reproduction. There is also variation between computers, so a web page on a PC may look different when viewed on a Macintosh. There are similar problems with colour printers.

These issues can cause problems for some sectors, such as the fashion industry.

There are also differences in the way we perceive colour from a screen compared to the way we perceive colour from paper
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Learning outcomes

  • After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • design a user interface, making effective use of typeface, colour, still and moving images, and sound.


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6.2.2 Representing visual and symbolic texts

We saw that when you discuss your judgements of a visual text such as the landscape painting or The Madonna and Child, you talk about its ‘composition’: the way the ‘picture space’ is organised; the relationships between ‘foreground’ and ‘background’, and between ‘figures’. You discuss the way ‘perspective’ is used in the painting to show ‘depth’; the painting's tonal range’, and its uses of ‘colour’, ‘shape’, ‘line’; ‘light’ and ‘shade
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