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1 The Chinese Welfare Association's Carer Support Project, Belfast

This audio unit features a project that was set up in Northern Ireland specifically to support Chinese carers. It is one of several projects being run by the Chinese Welfare Association in Belfast at that time.

The Chinese Welfare Association

The Chinese Welfare Association is a voluntary orga
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8 Summary and key themes

In this unit you have been introduced to a diverse range of ideas about health. To recap, the themes and ideas you have met in this unit are:

  • The diversity of accounts of health. An important theme of this unit is that there is a great diversity in what people mean when they talk of health; sometimes these meanings conflict and sometimes they can coexist but health is a creative and multifaceted concept.

  • The importance of â€
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Activity 2

Shared values for children’s participation

1 hour 0 minutes

In the extract you have read in Activity 1, Leverett identifies a set of shared values developed as part of the ‘Hear by Right’ standa
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Introduction

Ever wondered what social workers do? This brief introduction gives you some insight into social work practice and the theory which informs the practice. This unit is made up of a series of six extracts. You are introduced to the four components to good practice and will look at the importance of the following approaches to social work practice:

  • Biography

  • The social context of social work

  • Responding to children’s needs
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1.1.1 Frequency

Frequency refers to how often or how frequently someone should exercise. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommends an exercise frequency of three to five days per week to improve or maintain VO2max (ACSM, 2006). They suggest that people training for sport may need to exercise more frequently.


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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • begin to identify exercise prescriptions aimed at increasing aerobic fitness.


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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is used under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence. See terms and conditions.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to:

Figures

Figure 5 © Shelly Woods.

Text

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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • begin to recognise how elite sport is funded in the UK.


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3.5 Benzodiazepine tranquillisers, Prozac and the SSRIs

One of the most significant ranges of drugs ever produced is the benzodiazepine tranquillisers (usually classed as ‘minor tranquillisers’ or ‘hypnotics’), often prescribed as a remedy for ‘minor’ disorders such as depression, sleeplessness and anxiety. In effect, they extended the range of conditions that could be treated by medication. The best-known example is probably Valium.

3.3.1 A conflict of interest

One of the difficulties of the involvement of drug companies in the mental health field is that it produces a conflict of interest. To put it crudely, drug companies rely on a continuing supply of patients to keep them in business. This is not always congruent with people's best interests, as you will see below. Although mental health services are intended to help people experiencing mental distress, they also have other driving forces. The market economy model of provision has encouraged the
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2.1 Introduction

Western society is increasingly preoccupied with concerns about risk, so much so that some sociologists now define it as ‘risk society’ (Beck, 1992). It is argued that people in general are experiencing heightened levels of anxiety in response to rapid technological and social change. News stories in the media are filled with warnings and dire predictions for the future. This is particularly true when the potential consequences appear to be both catastrophic and difficult to predict, such
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1.2.1 Boundaries and terminology

In another context Shakespeare asked, ‘What's in a name?’, and suggested by way of an answer that a rose may smell as sweet whatever it is called. In the context of social boundaries, however, the language used is actually very important in determining ‘who's in’ and ‘who's out’.

Activity 1: L
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Acknowledgements

This unit is taken from Perspectives on Complementary and Alternative Medicine (Course Reader) which forms part of the core text for the Open University course K221 Perspectives on Complementary and Alternative Medicine, (eds Tom Heller, Geraldine Lee-Treweek, Jeanne Katz, Julie Stone and Sue Spurr) (The Open University) published by Routledge, Taylor and Francis in association with The Open University. Copyright © The Open University 2005.

Except for third party materia
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3.22 Extract 3 References

Beauchamp, T. and Childress, J. (1994) Principles of Biomedical Ethics (4th edition), Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Cant, S. and Sharma, U. (eds) (1996) Complementary and Alternative Medicines: Knowledge in Practice, London, Free Association Books Ltd.

Department of Health (2001) The Expert Patient: A New Approach to Chronic Disease Management for the 21 st Century, London, DoH.

Ernst, E. (1996) ‘The ethics of complementary medicine’, Journal o
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3.21 Conclusion

This extract has shown that CAM practice raises a variety of ethical issues. Although ethical considerations have different dimensions when applied to CAM, this extract demonstrated that ethical issues – such as consent, competence, boundaries and effective communication – remain central to good practice. CAM practitioners, like all other responsible health care workers, must be taught and encouraged to recognise the ethical dimensions of their work. All practitioners must be accountable
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3.20 Key ethical issues for CAM practitioners: an effective complaints mechanism

Effective relationships require strong communication skills. A good therapeutic relationship allows users the space and security to air their dissatisfaction without recourse to an external body. However, not all users enjoy such open relationships with their practitioners and may prefer to end the relationship than voice a complaint. This is why it is crucial for professional bodies to have accessible and user-centred complaints mechanisms in place. Complaints panels must include a significa
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3.19 Key ethical issues for CAM practitioners: professional etiquette and whistleblowing

In the past, professional bodies cautioned their members against disparaging other members of the same profession in front of a user. In the UK many codes of ethics still discuss professional etiquette from the perspective of safeguarding the interests of the practitioner rather than the user. Sensitivity is required when treating a user who is dissatisfied with a previous practitioner, but this should not prevent a practitioner being critical of someone else's obviously unacceptable treatmen
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3.18 Key ethical issues for CAM practitioners: maintain professional boundaries

All practitioners have a duty to create and maintain safe boundaries, irrespective of their therapeutic orientation, training or individual way of practising. The therapeutic relationship is based on trust and practitioners must never exploit users for their own ends. Practitioners should be aware that they may be working with users who have difficulty respecting boundaries, whether emotional, sexual or financial. Practitioners also need to be very clear about making their own boundaries expl
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3.17 Key ethical issues for CAM practitioners: respect confidentiality

During their professional practice, practitioners will be told a lot of personal information about their clients. This information is imparted in the context of a trusting relationship in which users trust that the information they have conveyed will be used only in their best interests and divulged only with their consent. The duty to respect users' confidentiality flows from the duty to respect their autonomy. People cannot make their own choices and control their lives if they cannot contr
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3.16 Key ethical issues for CAM practitioners: consent for children receiving CAM

Growing numbers of parents seek CAM for their children, as witnessed by the development of paediatric specialities in some CAM therapies, such as neonatal and paediatric osteopathy. A key ethical issue is that, in the UK, as in other jurisdictions, parents are entrusted to act as proxy decision makers for their children's health decisions until they can make their own choices. Parents are bound by law to make decisions in their children's best interests. Although most CAM therapies are relati
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