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2.3 Reasons for social marketing

Your thoughts should already have suggested reasons why social marketing can be an effective approach to dealing with social problems and issues. We will now consider some of these and also arguments against the use of marketing within this context. Three key reasons for adopting a social marketing approach are:

  1. The power of marketing – The power of marketing principles and techniques in the hands of the commercial sector cannot be denied. M
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4.1 Introduction

The 1970s marked a period in which the cessation of the ‘normal’ period of full-time employment at 60 or 65 years had become the accepted orthodoxy. The personal lives of older people had thus become constituted outside the domain of paid employment and within the arena of public and private welfare. As we illustrated in the preceding section, pensions, organised around fixed ages of retirement based on chronological measurements of age, played a crucial role in this process. Further, as
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2 Explaining fertility decline from a feminist perspective

Feminist theory underpins one of the most influential historiographies of fertility decline and it allows us to foreground gender as a dominant feature in questions of heterosexuality and parenthood. This is not to suggest that divisions of class, ‘race’, (dis)ability and generation are unimportant in this historical phenomenon, and any full understanding of fertility decline would be incomplete without including them. But in this unit the main focus will be on gender and these other soci
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1.2 Defining parenthood

As a starting point, we need to distinguish parenthood from parenting. Parenthood is more about the role, social status and meanings associated with being a parent, of bringing children into the world and having children to look after. Parenting, on the other hand, is associated with the activities of looking after children and raising them to adulthood. Parenting can be undertaken by a range of people: a man, a woman, a relative or an unrelated carer. It implies a sustained
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2.2.2 Positive integers: binary numbers

Just as a denary number system uses ten different digits (0, 1, 2, 3, … 9), a binary number system uses two (0, 1).

Once again the idea of positional notation is important. You have just seen that the weightings which apply to the digits in a denary number are the exponents of ten. With binary numbers, where only two digits are used, the weightings applied to the digits are exponents of two.

The rightmost bit is given the weighting of 2°, which is 1. The ne
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1.5.1 Different types of moving image

On paper, you can show movement by a series of diagrams each with a very small change. Figure 9 illustrates such a scenario. This has its uses, as it allows the process to be studied very carefully.


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1.4.1 The role of images

We can use images in several ways.

  • To motivate, to attract the attention of the user, to amuse and to persuade. These uses are particularly important in advertising and marketing.

  • To communicate information. This is often exploited in computer-based learning materials.

  • To help overcome language barriers. This approach is widely used in instruction manuals for consumer items.

  • To support interaction. Fo
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1.3.3 Choosing colours with the right connotations

When you use a colour, you should think about what it is likely to mean to the people who look at it, as colours can have different connotations. Colours can even make people feel different. For example, pink has been shown to have a calming effect on emotionally disturbed people.

These connotations are partly cultural, so you may find they do not ring true for you if you are a member of a non-western culture, such as Chinese or Indian. For example, in western culture, red is often used
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1.3.2 The characteristics of colour

Screens can only display a subset of the colours visible to the human eye. This limits the accuracy of colour reproduction. There is also variation between computers, so a web page on a PC may look different when viewed on a Macintosh. There are similar problems with colour printers.

These issues can cause problems for some sectors, such as the fashion industry.

There are also differences in the way we perceive colour from a screen compared to the way we perceive colour from paper
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Learning outcomes

  • After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • design a user interface, making effective use of typeface, colour, still and moving images, and sound.


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6.2.2 Representing visual and symbolic texts

We saw that when you discuss your judgements of a visual text such as the landscape painting or The Madonna and Child, you talk about its ‘composition’: the way the ‘picture space’ is organised; the relationships between ‘foreground’ and ‘background’, and between ‘figures’. You discuss the way ‘perspective’ is used in the painting to show ‘depth’; the painting's tonal range’, and its uses of ‘colour’, ‘shape’, ‘line’; ‘light’ and ‘shade
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6.2.1 Quoting from written texts

We have seen that when you are discussing a poem, you talk about its ‘rhythms’ or movement, its patterns of sound such as ‘rhyme’, and its ‘imagery’ and ‘syntax’, quoting words, phrases and lines from the poem as evidence of the points you want to make about it. And this applies to play-texts and novels, too. As you discuss the ‘characters’ involved, you quote parts of their ‘dialogue’ or passages from the ‘narrator's’ descriptions of them. You also quote
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7.2 Developing a strategy

Present notes or records to show you have planned your use of number skills. Include:

  • the goals you hope to achieve for your number skills over 3–4 months or so, taking into account the work you have to do and your current capabilities;

  • notes about the resources you might use and the information you need to research to achieve your goals; for example, discussions and econferences, online resources, skills books, course materials, wo
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5 Effective use of information technology

The purpose of this course is for you to create a portfolio of your work to represent you as an effective user of information technology (IT) within your study or work activities. This will involve using criteria to help you select examples of your work that clearly show you can use and improve your IT skills. However, by far the most important aim is that you can use this assessment process to support your learning and improve your performance overall.

Using information technology skil
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3.3 Drawing on course material

Unless you are taking a course in creative writing, essays are generally meant to help you consolidate what you have been studying. You are not asked to answer the question in the title ‘off the top of your head’ nor on the basis of some prior knowledge. You are expected to take the essay as an opportunity to scan back over what you have been reading or doing and select relevant material from that. The tutor who marks your essay will already have in mind a range of course material that co
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7.1 Processing meanings

Reading and thinking requires you to begin to process the material you read in preparation for re-presenting it in assessments. Initially, processing happens in your head. Selecting what to identify and extract will start the process off. Summarizing the arguments continues this process and, crucially, gets you started on reproducing ideas in your own words. The next stage is to develop your notes further by thinking more consciously about the material you have read and the points you
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to c
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Introduction

The issue of ‘citizenship, work and the economy’ is often neglected in everyday discussions of citizenship. But a moment's reflection should demonstrate how important it is. The vast majority of us will spend the bulk of our adult lives working in some context or another, and our engagement with economic activity more generally is obvious (and not just as consumers).

Many young people are also intimately tied up with work. School children often have part-time evening, weekend or ho
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4.1 Can talking do more than voting?

We normally think of democracy as being about voting. But what if people don't know about the candidates or issues they vote on? Shouldn't talk, aimed at informing us about the issues, be more important in a democracy?

Many commentators on democracy today think we need to create a more deliberative democracy. Voting is fine, but what is critical in our complex world is understanding issues and willingness to give adequate reasons for one's opinions and votes. Without understanding and k
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8.3 Actividad

Actividad 8.3

In this activity you are going to find out about another interesting hotel, this time in Santiago de Cuba, which overlooks the house of Diego Velázquez, the first Spanish governor of Cuba.

DIEGO VEL
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