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2.2.12 Activity: living through change

Living through changes

  • 1908 – Royal Commission on the Care and Control of the Feeble-Minded

  • 1910 – James Lappin born

  • 1913 – Mental Deficiency Act (England and Scotland)

  • 1915 – Colin Sproul born


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2.2.5 The emergence of asylum professionals

Asylums and institutions were not only sites of care and control, they were also places where people worked as staff and developed professional expertise. The people who worked there also experienced segregation, professionally speaking. In this section we take a brief look at the development of caring professions in the institutions.

Low status patients, frequently paupers, with low status illnesses and conditions, such as mental illness, mental frailty or mental handicap, provided no
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • use Goffman’s model of ‘the total institution’ to organise and explain information that has been observed and recorded;

  • describe the development of large-scale institutions in the nineteenth century which were designed to segregate, control and in some cases, cure, their inmates.


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Introduction

In this unit we consider some of the issues raised by Howard Mitchell who has made a special study of Lennox Castle Hospital, about ten miles from Glasgow at Lennoxtown. His study is the subject of the video clips that accompany this block. Lennox Castle Hospital belongs to the period of the 1920s and 1930s when separate provision for people with learning difficulties was being developed following the 1913 Mental Deficiency Act.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extrac
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Introduction

This Unit looks at the work of William Beveridge in reforming the field of social welfare after World War II. Particular attention is paid to the attitude towards women and immigrants to the United Kingdom.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Understanding Health and Social Care (K100) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to study formally with us, you may wish to explore other courses we offer in this Author(s): The Open University

Acknowledgements

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Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this Unit:

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A good death?

How would you classify these four deaths? The following comments are from the course testers and authors.

Vic's death was lonely and probably difficult, in that his breathing was laboured as a result of his disease. Seeing his children after five years and being alert enough to recognise them are positive elements in what seemed to be a sad and difficult life.

Li’s death was good in many ways. Her family were with her and prepared, she was not distressed as far as it is possible
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1.4.2 Concepts of a good death

The concept of a ‘good death’ is highly contentious. Definitions vary according to different historical and cultural contexts. At certain points in history there has existed formal teaching about the proper conduct of death and dying, perhaps the most noteworthy being the medieval books on ‘the art of dying well’. These were often illustrated with woodcuts showing angels and devils at the deathbed competing for the dying person’s soul. The accompanying inscriptions explain that God
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1.3.3 Ineffability

Most people who speak of their near-death experience say they have great difficulty putting it into words because, as one person put it, ‘There is no feeling you experience in normal life that is anything like this’.


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1.1 Living with death and dying

Knowledge and beliefs about death can have a profound effect both on the way people live and the way they approach their own death. In this Unit we look in depth at these issues. There are three sections.

The first section addresses the effects that the knowledge that we die has on our lives. Here we explore how the beliefs people hold about death affect the meaning they attach to life. We try to imagine what life would be like if it did not end in death. Given that we do die, we examin
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following source for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

Table 1: Department of Health 1994, On the State of the Public Health: The Annual Report of the Chie
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1.5.1 Agreeing who to be

So far I have focused on one-to-one interactions. Yet ‘defining a scene’ is often a group effort. Goffman says this involves teamwork, with all participants, in effect, agreeing to act and speak within an overall frame of reference. He suggests that it works like a theatrical play in which everyone has taken on a part within the scene. To play your part means setting aside all those aspects of yourself which are not relevant to your role. The scene works only because everyone plays their
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References

Alzheimer's Disease Society (1996) Information Sheet 1, Alzheimer's Disease Society, Gordon House, 10 Greencoat Place, London SW1P 1PH.
Arias, E.G. (ed.) (1993) The Meaning and Use of Housing, Avebury, Aldershot.
Department of Health (2001) The Children Act Now: Messages from Research, The Stationery Office, London.
Dunlo
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1.2.1 Positive and negative meanings

Many people spend a lot of time at home, they invest part of themselves within it, both materially and emotionally. So what does it mean?

Activity 1: What does home mean?

  1. The good news


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1 Attachment to place

In this unit we are going to consider the way in which people identify and become attached to places, buildings, objects, and how this attachment can contribute to personal well-being or how we feel about ourselves (Low and Altman, 1992). Looking at why places become important provides a basis for asking questions about what happens when people have to move, a common occurrence for people in need of care services.

The purpose of this unit is to focus on the psychological environment, ho
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • demonstrate an understanding of how shared histories of places and spaces could be an important resource to any caring relationship;

  • identify ways in which the environment can become a resource for caring;

  • appreciate the importance of personal control over changes of place in relation to how people cope and adjust.


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3.2.1 Words and images

Words like ‘mental defective’ are also linked with images. Together, the words and the images make a powerful impact.

Activity 9 Words and images

0 hours 10 minutes

Look a
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1.7 Key points

In the key points box below we sum up the main ideas introduced so far. You can use it now to check that you have grasped the main ideas, and later the key points will remind you of the content.

Key points

  • An informal carer is defined as a person who, without
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1.5 Young carers

Who is left out of the definition of informal carer? At first sight, taking account of the four complications noted above means that no one is left out. The definition can embrace anyone who is taking unpaid responsibility for the welfare of another person. Where do children and young people come into this? Maybe in answering Activity 5 you considered whether parenting young children makes you a carer. Looking after young children is not usually seen as making someone a carer. It is seen as m
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2.4.4 Networks

The fourth complication of my definition of a carer was networks. The drive to recognise someone as an informal carer or main carer risks leaving out of the picture other people who play an important part in sustaining someone, but who are not the main carer. In Lynne's case, for example, we heard that her boyfriend, Eddie, was an important figure. If her needs for care were under the spotlight, would Eddie figure? He probably does not count as a main carer, but without him her quality of lif
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