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1 Unit overview

Never before have social issues been more at the centre of public and private debate than at the present. From concerns about sustainability and the future of the planet to the introduction of smoking bans, from actions to combat ‘binge drinking’ and childhood obesity to programmes designed to prevent the spread of AIDS in developing countries, there is a growing recognition that social marketing has a role to play in achieving a wide range of social goals. In the UK, for example, the Nat
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4.1 Introduction

The 1970s marked a period in which the cessation of the ‘normal’ period of full-time employment at 60 or 65 years had become the accepted orthodoxy. The personal lives of older people had thus become constituted outside the domain of paid employment and within the arena of public and private welfare. As we illustrated in the preceding section, pensions, organised around fixed ages of retirement based on chronological measurements of age, played a crucial role in this process. Further, as
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2 Explaining fertility decline from a feminist perspective

Feminist theory underpins one of the most influential historiographies of fertility decline and it allows us to foreground gender as a dominant feature in questions of heterosexuality and parenthood. This is not to suggest that divisions of class, ‘race’, (dis)ability and generation are unimportant in this historical phenomenon, and any full understanding of fertility decline would be incomplete without including them. But in this unit the main focus will be on gender and these other soci
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1.2 Defining parenthood

As a starting point, we need to distinguish parenthood from parenting. Parenthood is more about the role, social status and meanings associated with being a parent, of bringing children into the world and having children to look after. Parenting, on the other hand, is associated with the activities of looking after children and raising them to adulthood. Parenting can be undertaken by a range of people: a man, a woman, a relative or an unrelated carer. It implies a sustained
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2.2.4 Positive integers: encoding larger integers

The examples and activities in this section have looked only at 8-bit numbers. They have illustrated all of the principles of encoding positive integers as binary numbers without introducing the complication of larger numbers. But of course with 8 bits only relatively small integers can be encoded.

Activi
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4.2 Using images to good effect

The following are the main types of image.

  • Pictures. These include photographs, drawings and cartoons.

  • Diagrams. These include maps and other representations of relationships between objects, such as family trees and Venn diagrams. Some writers classify maps as charts. We have chosen not to do this.

  • Graphs and charts. These are visual representations of numbers. Thus, they include pie charts, h
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1.3.5 Using colour to represent information

All UIs need to communicate information. Colour can be particularly effective for this. Table 4 summarises some of the techniques that are available.

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1.3.2 The characteristics of colour

Screens can only display a subset of the colours visible to the human eye. This limits the accuracy of colour reproduction. There is also variation between computers, so a web page on a PC may look different when viewed on a Macintosh. There are similar problems with colour printers.

These issues can cause problems for some sectors, such as the fashion industry.

There are also differences in the way we perceive colour from a screen compared to the way we perceive colour from paper
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1.3.1 The role of colour

We can use colour in the following ways.

  • To draw attention. You will often find that important buttons or areas of the screen are a different colour. For example, warning signs are often in bright colours, such as amber or red. Your eyes are drawn to these colours.

  • To show status. As the status becomes more critical, the colour might change. An example of this is traffic lights changing from amber to red.


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Introduction

Why is the way something looks important? Text, colour, images, moving images and sound all interact to produce a user friendly environment within a user interface. This unit will help you understand the effect each software component has on the user and explain how a consistent and thoughtful application of these components can have a significant impact on the ‘look’ of final product.

This unit is from our archive and is an adapted extract from User interface design and evaluation
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6.3 Networks of objects

No serious program consists of a single object. Instead there will be a network of objects, which collaborate to achieve the functionality of the whole system. Figure 4 shows a network of objects representing a hotel, some guests and some rooms. This sort of diagram is called an object diagram or a snaps
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2.3 Synchronous and asynchronous message passing

Synchronous message passing involves one entity (usually a client) in the message passing process sending a message and a second entity (usually a server) receiving it, carrying out some processing and then sending back some response which the first entity processes in some way. While the second entity is carrying out the processing the first entity pauses waiting for the response.

In asynchronous message passing each entity in the process does not have to wait for the next part
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2.1 Protocols

Message passing is the simplest form of development paradigm. For example, the way that a client running a browser communicates with a web server is via message passing.

Message passing is based on the idea of a protocol: a language which embodies the functions required by one entity in a distributed system (usually a client) which another entity provides (usually a server). As an example of a protocol consider Table 1. It shows the protocol associated with a naming servi
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6.2.2 Representing visual and symbolic texts

We saw that when you discuss your judgements of a visual text such as the landscape painting or The Madonna and Child, you talk about its ‘composition’: the way the ‘picture space’ is organised; the relationships between ‘foreground’ and ‘background’, and between ‘figures’. You discuss the way ‘perspective’ is used in the painting to show ‘depth’; the painting's tonal range’, and its uses of ‘colour’, ‘shape’, ‘line’; ‘light’ and ‘shade
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6.2.1 Quoting from written texts

We have seen that when you are discussing a poem, you talk about its ‘rhythms’ or movement, its patterns of sound such as ‘rhyme’, and its ‘imagery’ and ‘syntax’, quoting words, phrases and lines from the poem as evidence of the points you want to make about it. And this applies to play-texts and novels, too. As you discuss the ‘characters’ involved, you quote parts of their ‘dialogue’ or passages from the ‘narrator's’ descriptions of them. You also quote
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7.4 Evaluating your strategy and assessing your work

Include a reflective summary that gives details of:

  • a judgement of your own progress and performance in the number skills you set out to improve, including an assessment of where you feel you have made the greatest progress; discuss how you used criteria and feedback comments to help you assess your progress;

  • those factors that had the greatest effect on your achieving what you set out to do; include those that worked well to help you
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6 What you should present

This assessment unit has two parts. Part A requires you to show what you did to plan, monitor, evaluate and reflect upon your skills. Part B requires you to select examples of your work that demonstrate what you have done to improve and apply your skills. Together the two parts form a portfolio of your achievements. You can use the guidance, Bookmarks and Skills Sheets included in the OpenLearn unit U529_1 Key skills – making a difference to help you structure and present your work.<
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2.5 Other aspects of writing

Now we will look at the way Philip and Hansa wrote and presented their essays. Did you find them both easy to read? As regards Philip's, my answer is, ‘yes and no’. It is sometimes easy because he has a fluent way with words. But it is often difficult because he does not use enough punctuation to help us make sense of his words, and because of certain mistakes he makes. I found Hansa's essay easier to read. Her writing is more technically correct and more assured than Philip's. But
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8.5 Constructing bibliographies

At the end of your assignments you need to include a bibliography or list of references. This is an alphabetical list of all the sources that you have used – each chapter, book and article that you refer to in the main body of your discussion. Bibliographies take a particular form and usually involve listing the:

  • author's name,

  • date of publication,

  • title of the piece, and

  • details of the publisher.
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5 Giving feedback

In order to develop and improve dance skills, students should also be involved in evaluating one another's, and their own, work.

Performing for one another in class as part of an evaluation and feedback process can be beneficial to both the students and teacher.

When done on a regular basis, students can become less self-conscious about performing in front of others; this is important in terms of building confidence in young performers.

Feedback is an important part of the i
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