Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should:

  • have begun to identify your own strengths and weaknesses as a writer of fiction;

  • have developed a general awareness of fiction writing;

  • have developed a basic vocabulary to discuss fiction.


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8.8 Hinduism as ‘a world religion’: a more recent understanding

Traditionally, as we have seen, a Hindu was someone born to Hindu parents and into a caste with its appropriate dharma. The link between religious practice and a whole way of life bound the individual into a community from birth. Regional factors, parentage and caste affiliation largely determi
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8.6 The Dakshineswar temple

I want you now to follow a worshipper on a ‘pilgrimage in miniature’ around Dakshineswar temple on the outskirts of Calcutta. Before you read further, please study carefully the plan of Dakshineswar temple in Figure 14.

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8.5 Looking for Hinduism in Calcutta

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Courtesy of Lanterna at Flickr

All other materials included in this unit are derived from conten
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1.5.2 What is the significance of the numbers?

In seeking the significance of these numbers, there is more information on the tablet that we have not yet taken into account, namely the text of the column headings themselves. The heading of column A is partly destroyed, but the text headings for B and C are clearer. B says something like ‘ib-sa of the front’, and C ‘ib-sa of the diagonal’, where ib-sa is a Sumerian word whose significance here is not precisely known. The geometrical
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1.5.1 Uncertain origins

The tablet is called Plimpton 322, and is described by Neugebauer (The Exact Sciences in Antiquity (Dover, 1969) p. 40) as ‘one of the most remarkable documents of Old-Babylonian mathematics’. The name arises simply from the fact that the tablet has catalogue number 322 in the George A. Plimpton collection at Columbia University, New York. Plimpton bought it in about 1923 from a Mr Banks who lived in Florida; it is not certain where he obtained it, but it may have been dug u
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1.2 A Babylonian mathematical problem

Before seeing how our knowledge has been acquired, let us get into the spirit of things by ascertaining what a problem looks like once the modern cuneiform scholar has translated a tablet. The following example is taken from a tablet (see Figure 2), now at Yale University, translated by Otto Neugebauer and Abraham Sachs. Words in square brackets are their suggested reconstructions of what the tablet presumably says (where it is damaged), and words in parentheses are the translator's additions
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1 Babylonian mathematics

In Mesopotamia, the scribes of Babylon and the other big cities were impressing on clay tablets economic and administrative records, literary, religious and scientific works, word-lists, and mathematical problems and tables. Nearly all of the texts that give us our fullest understanding of Babylonian mathematics—indeed, of any mathematics before the Greeks—date from about 1800—1600 BC. During this period, King Hammurabi unified Mesopotamia out of a rabble of small city-states into an em
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • know something about cuneiform how it was used to represent numbers for mathematical problem solving and computation;

  • understand the relationship between a decimal place-value system and a sexagesimal one;

  • appreciate the advanced understanding of mathematics in Ancient Mesopotamia in relation to anyone in medieval Christian Europe 3000 years later.


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References

Baird, J.D. and Ryskamp, C. (eds) (1980–95) The Poems of William Cowper, 3 vols, Oxford, Clarendon Press.
Baxter, J. (1974) ‘The great Yorkshire revival 1792–6: a study of mass revival among the Methodists’, in M. Hill (ed.) A Sociological Yearbook of Religion in Britain, 4, pp.46–76.
Belsham, T. (1798) A Review of Mr Wilberforce's Treatise, Lo
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Acknowledgements

This unit was written by Dr Debbie Brunton

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Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reprod
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you will be able to:

  • appreciate the historical development of ‘Europe’ as a political and economic entity;

  • understand the rationale for the emergence of the idea of ‘Europe’ in policy making;

  • see the difficulty in defining what Europe is and its limits;

  • understand the contested nature of the idea of Europe;

  • understand that ‘Europe’ is not coterminous with the European Union;


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3.3 Other disadvantaged groups

Information on other disadvantaged groups, such as older workers or people with disabilities, is even harder to come by. The problems faced by older workers in the labour market have become an increasing cause for concern in recent years. The nature of the disadvantage faced by older workers is, however, much harder to uncover and the evidence is often anecdotal. One trend that has become evident during the past three decades is the difficulty older workers have in obtaining any work and, in
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4.2.2 Network

In the same way as in the network shown in Figure 8, this network conveys the data to the receiver, selecting the most appropriate route for it to travel. In order to do this, the network may need to manipulate and store or retrieve data.

Your computer sends the FirstClass message
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7.4 Understanding RFID tags

An RFID tag consists of a microchip and an antenna and some kind of encapsulation, such as epoxy resin, to bind the two together and protect them. Tags come in a variety of shapes and sizes (Figure 20), and are generally one of two main types: active or passive. You
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5.3 The speed of development

E-commerce consultants speak of a web year. This is the time which it takes to bring to implementation a conventional system that would normally take a calendar year to develop. Current estimates are that one calendar year is equivalent to seven web years. Nowhere is there more of an imperative for companies to develop products and services quickly, together with the computing infrastructure required to support them, than in e-commerce. In software engineering terms this has given rise to a n
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2.7 Other commercial websites

So far I have detailed e-commerce applications which are connected with very large organisations; to conclude this section it is worth looking at a number of smaller applications, many of which are distinguished by the fact that they are novel. They are in contrast to the applications discussed in previous subsections which mainly consist of standard functions such as order processing.

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1.8 Maintenance

Databases are one of the more enduring software engineering artefacts; it is not uncommon to find database implementations whose use can be traced back for 15 years or more. Consequently, maintenance of the database is a key issue.

Maintenance can take three main forms:

  • Operational maintenance, where the performance of the database is monitored. If it falls below some acceptable standard, then reorganisation of the database, usuall
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