4.241J Theory of City Form (MIT)
This course covers theories about the form that settlements should take and attempts a distinction between descriptive and normative theory by examining examples of various theories of city form over time. Case studies will highlight the origins of the modern city and theories about its emerging form, including the transformation of the nineteenth-century city and its organization. Through examples and historical context, current issues of city form in relation to city-making, social structure,
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6.5.1 Presumptions

When determining the meaning of particular words the courts will make certain presumptions about the law. If the statute clearly states the opposite, then a presumption will not apply and it is said that the presumption is rebutted. The main presumptions are:

  1. A presumption against change in the common law.

    It is assumed that the common law will apply unless Parliament has made it plain in the Act that the common law has been altered.


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2.3 Europe as a ‘non-other’

The idea of ‘otherness’ has always been a strong component in the formation of any European identity and it is a division that has, paradoxically, run as much through geographical Europe and its societies as it has demarcated Europe from supposedly alien, external civilizations. ‘Europeanness’, like other collective identities, has faced two kinds of others: those fully external to it and those located within. One of the problems surrounding the development of a modern European identi
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Onderwerp en persoonsvorm aanduiden in een zin
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Leerlingen duiden in een aantal zinnen het onderwerp en de persoonsvorm aan.


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4.2.3 Modern reports (1865 to present)

As you have seen, the private reports were not without their problems. In addition to, at least occasional, inaccuracy, their publication could be both slow and expensive. This situation was at last remedied by the establishment of the Council for Law Reporting in 1865, subsequently registered as a corporate body in 1870 under the name of the Incorporated Council of Law Reporting for England and Wales. The council was established under the auspices of the Inns of Court and the Law Society wit
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6 Conclusion

William Wilberforce died on 29 July 1833, two days after hearing that the legislation for the abolition of slavery in British dominions had successfully completed its passage through the House of Commons, a fitting conclusion to the work he had begun nearly half a century before.

The Practical View both reflected and contributed to a major shift in religious consciousness of which the continuing growth of the Evangelical movement was the most striking manifestation. Methodist num
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6.6 Rules of language

The courts may also choose to look at other words in the statute to ascertain the meaning of specific words. To enable them to do this they have developed a number of rules of language to help make the meaning of words and phrases clear. There are three main rules of language:

  • Ejusdem generis

    This rule states that where there is a list of words which is followed by general words then the general words are limited to the same kind of items
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Grammatical design is useful for the generation of a set of related designs. The concept of type aids designers in generating designs with a specified structure. However, existing studies in grammar are ambiguous in their definition of type in the language of designs generated by a grammar. Extending our previous study of defining style in grammar, this paper provides a formal definition of the concept of type in the language of designs generated by a grammar. This is done with the help of a des
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