3.1 Areas of quadrilaterals and triangles

You may like to add the area formulas in this section to your notes for future reference.

The simplest areas to find are those of rectangles. The area of a rectangle is its length multiplied by its breadth. Sometimes the dimensions of a rectangle are referred to as the base and the height, instead of the length and the breadth. The area is then expressed as the base multiplied by the height.

2.9 Similar and congruent shapes

Two shapes are said to be similar if they are the same shape but not necessarily the same size. In other words, one may be an enlargement of the other. They may also have different orientations, as in the drawing below.

4.1 When climate changes

We have seen that human-induced climate change poses a challenge for people who live on islands. Such changing patterns and extremes of climate also put pressure on the other living things that are part of the make-up of island territories. However, long before human beings became aware that they could transform the flows that constitute climate, they and other species were already taking advantage of these same flows to help create the very territories that are now under threat. But have the
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you t
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

4.1 Uniting the developing countries

Several attempts have been made to form a united front of developing countries to negotiate a better deal at the WTO. They have met with little success because there are substantial conflicts of interest between them, for example between agricultural importers and exporters, and between small countries and those larger developing countries that have been able individually to use the lure of opening their markets to get a better deal from developed countries. Conflicts of interest arise too be
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

1.2 Wavelength or frequency?

In this unit you will find frequent references both to the wavelength of light and the frequency of light. It is important to be able to work with both, and convert from one to the other. In the context of optical-fibre communication, the light radiation we are concerned with is usually in the infrared region of the spectrum.

To identify the position in the electromagnetic spectrum it is usual to refer to the wavelength of light, rather than its frequency. Thus I will refer to the ‘13
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

1.1 Uses of optical fibre in communication

Using optical fibres, very high data rates (gigabits per second and higher) can be transmitted over long distances (tens of kilometres) without amplifiers or regenerators. As a consequence, optical fibre has completely superseded copper wires as the primary medium for cabled transmission over long distances. Until recently, however, optical fibre has been used less in LANs, where twisted-pair copper cable has been dominant. Similarly, fibre has been slow to penetrate the access network, from
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

5.9 Ethical reasoning

Now Ned's got three things. He's got the money that is presumably ‘good’. He's got his defence policy, which he thinks is ‘good’. Ros then introduces the well-being of the community. They are all ‘goods’ but each pulls in a different direction. Any judgement that Ned makes has to be based on an aggregation of these things. But, of course, these are quite different kinds of things, they are incommensurate, so adding up these things is not a straightforward proposition. Ros is hopin
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Voice-leading analysis of music 2: the middleground
This free course, Voice-leading analysis of music 2: the middleground, continues our examination of 'voice-leading' or 'Schenkerian' analysis, perhaps the most widely used and discussed method of analysing tonal music. In this course, this method is explained through the analysis of piano sonatas by Mozart. The course is the second in the AA314 series of three courses on this form of harmonic analysis, and concentrates on the 'middleground level' of voice leading. As you work through this course
Author(s): Creator not set

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Form and uses of language
In this free course, Form and uses of language, we will consider how language can be used in different ways for different purposes. To do this we will use the theme of memorial and commemoration. In the first section we briefly discuss the life of the poet Siegfried Sassoon before examining both his poetry and his prose. Through this we will see how Sassoon conveys meaning in different ways for different audiences using different forms. Following this we discuss more generally how different mean
Author(s): Creator not set

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Introduction

This course focuses on a detailed investigation into the archaelogy and history of a Roman North African city. You will watch the video sequence ‘Exploring Thugga’ and undertake activities identifying Roman and indigenous elements in the city. You then investigate Roman and indigenous cultural elements in the archaeology of Africa; here you will watch two brief video sequences on mosaics, continue your study of the ‘Exploring Thugga’ video, and view ‘Culture and identity in the hous
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Introduction

This course will concentrate on one of the most common forms of art history writing – a biographical monograph about a single artist's life and work. You will be focusing on the way that one author, Helen Langdon, has used biography in her book about one artist, Caravaggio. In order to get the most out of studying this course you will need access to a copy of this book (ISBN 071266582x)

You will look in detail at the methods she has used to approach her subject and the different kinds
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

1.2 The Sandham Memorial Chapel

So let us turn first of all to the visual arts, and see how one artist, Stanley Spencer, created a memorial to those who died in the First World War. Spencer was profoundly affected by his experience of the war, and decorated the walls of a chapel especially designed to display his work.

First of all, it will help to have a few biographical details. This is not because you could not understand his painting without knowing about him: you could certainly pick up a lot of information about
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

6.3 The roots of segmentation

Why does segmentation occur? One approach to this question focuses upon the evolution of the product markets, from the competitive and the localised to the producer dominated, and from the national to an international market. Technological change makes capital-intensive methods of production possible. Employers, however, are unwilling to undertake large-scale investment unless the product demand is stable and predictable; when demand is variable, labour-intensive techniques are preferred. A g
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

The Final Cut
It is often said that a movie comes to life in the edit suite. Ben Harrex of Final Cut post production studios in London discusses five themes with examples; The Cut, The Dissolve, Cropping and Resizing, Titles and The Sound. Ben explains how the video editor has a huge amount of creative control over how the final product looks. This material forms part of The Open University course T215 Communication and information technologies.Author(s): The OpenLearn team

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

4.2 Security and privacy

The internet is not a particularly secure place. There are two aspects to this: the first is that information is widely published throughout the internet which can be used for criminal and near-criminal activities. The second aspect is that since the internet is an open system, details of its underlying technologies are freely available to anybody. This means that the way data passes through the internet is in the public domain; the consequence of this is that, theoretically, anyone with the
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

7.1 Hierarchies of ideas

A useful way of giving sense and structure to ideas can sometimes be to see them in the form of a hierarchy. At one end is the ‘big picture’ (e.g. general context, principles, theories, ideas, concepts) and at the other end are particular facts, examples and other details. For example, the concept of living things contains the category of animals and plants. Animals contains the category of mammals, which contains the category of dogs, which contains the specific type of dog called Dalmat
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

7 Giving structure to thinking

Two common thinking problems are: a feeling of not being able to 'see the wood for the trees', and difficulty in being logical and orderly. The key to solving them is being able to think about ideas and information in a conceptual and systematic way so that you have ways to structure your thinking. This can involve:

  • looking at the broader context

  • developing mental models and frameworks to hang ideas and information on

  • bein
    Author(s): The Open University

    License information
    Related content

    Copyright © 2016 The Open University

9 Letting go

This is the point where you have to make the decision that the assignment is complete and ready to be sent off. It is not always an easy decision to make. Perhaps you feel that there is always room for further improvement or there is something more that you could have done.

At a certain stage, the potential gain from further refinement is not sufficient to warrant delaying submission or to risk impeding progress with your course. Remember, you should be aiming for what is ‘good enough
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

6.2 Turning the spotlight on your work

Having established some general principles, try now to subject your own work to the same scrutiny.

Activity 14

Take one of your most recent essays or reports and ask yourself, ‘What does it look like?’ That is, d
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University