References

Baird, J.D. and Ryskamp, C. (eds) (1980–95) The Poems of William Cowper, 3 vols, Oxford, Clarendon Press.
Baxter, J. (1974) ‘The great Yorkshire revival 1792–6: a study of mass revival among the Methodists’, in M. Hill (ed.) A Sociological Yearbook of Religion in Britain, 4, pp.46–76.
Belsham, T. (1798) A Review of Mr Wilberforce's Treatise, Lo
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Glossary

Ballad A simple narrative poem in short stanzas, usually sentimental in nature.
Caesura A pause in a line of verse, usually in the middle.
Couplet A stanza of two lines.
Elegy A serious, mournful or reflective poem. Classical elegies feature either couplets of hexameter and p
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Acknowledgements

This unit was written by Dr Debbie Brunton

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Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reprod
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6.2 A sense of sumptuous hedonism

In the sphere of painting, decoration and architecture, Orientalist schemes of decoration, which were all the rage in the eighteenth century among those who sought a more colourful and sumptuous life, attained a particularly florid mode of expression in the early nineteenth century. This was a considerable development from the early Enlightenment Rococo, which had included Oriental subjects with graceful curves and conventional, theatre backdrop landscapes designed to complement elegant gold
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7 Writing

You have now almost reached the end of this unit. You should now be aware:

  • that photographs are shaped by a set of conventions based on ideas and practices which are not immediately apparent;

  • that photographs, like other documentary records, are partial and biased;

  • that photographs, like other documentary records, require critical analysis and careful interpretation;

  • of the importance of contextualiza
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you will be able to:

  • appreciate the historical development of ‘Europe’ as a political and economic entity;

  • understand the rationale for the emergence of the idea of ‘Europe’ in policy making;

  • see the difficulty in defining what Europe is and its limits;

  • understand the contested nature of the idea of Europe;

  • understand that ‘Europe’ is not coterminous with the European Union;


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3.3 Other disadvantaged groups

Information on other disadvantaged groups, such as older workers or people with disabilities, is even harder to come by. The problems faced by older workers in the labour market have become an increasing cause for concern in recent years. The nature of the disadvantage faced by older workers is, however, much harder to uncover and the evidence is often anecdotal. One trend that has become evident during the past three decades is the difficulty older workers have in obtaining any work and, in
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4.2.2 Network

In the same way as in the network shown in Figure 8, this network conveys the data to the receiver, selecting the most appropriate route for it to travel. In order to do this, the network may need to manipulate and store or retrieve data.

Your computer sends the FirstClass message
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7.4 Understanding RFID tags

An RFID tag consists of a microchip and an antenna and some kind of encapsulation, such as epoxy resin, to bind the two together and protect them. Tags come in a variety of shapes and sizes (Figure 20), and are generally one of two main types: active or passive. You
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7.3 RFID technology

There are three main components in an RFID system:

5.3 The speed of development

E-commerce consultants speak of a web year. This is the time which it takes to bring to implementation a conventional system that would normally take a calendar year to develop. Current estimates are that one calendar year is equivalent to seven web years. Nowhere is there more of an imperative for companies to develop products and services quickly, together with the computing infrastructure required to support them, than in e-commerce. In software engineering terms this has given rise to a n
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2.7 Other commercial websites

So far I have detailed e-commerce applications which are connected with very large organisations; to conclude this section it is worth looking at a number of smaller applications, many of which are distinguished by the fact that they are novel. They are in contrast to the applications discussed in previous subsections which mainly consist of standard functions such as order processing.

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1.8 Maintenance

Databases are one of the more enduring software engineering artefacts; it is not uncommon to find database implementations whose use can be traced back for 15 years or more. Consequently, maintenance of the database is a key issue.

Maintenance can take three main forms:

  • Operational maintenance, where the performance of the database is monitored. If it falls below some acceptable standard, then reorganisation of the database, usuall
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1.7 Testing

The aim of testing is to uncover errors in the design and implementation of the database, its structure, constraints and associated user and management support. Testing is usually considered to involve two main tasks – validation and verification. Without adequate testing users will have little confidence in their data processing.

Validation answers the question: has the right database been developed to meet the requirements? It attempts to confirm that the right database has been co
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1.6.4 Supporting data management strategies

Most of the development we've covered so far in this unit has focused on meeting specific user requirements – that is, ensuring the right data are constrained correctly and made available to the right user processes. However, other questions must also be addressed in order to support a data management strategy: How frequently should data be backed-up? What auditing mechanisms are required? Which users will be permitted to perform which functions? Which database tools and user processes wil
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5.2.2 Opening up ideas: analysing the question

What do you need to know about your assignment? Most importantly, what it's about (i.e. the topic). Once you have worked this out, you are in a better position to gauge how much you already know and how much you will need to find out.

Activity 9

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5.1 Estimating the time for the task

First you need to know how much time you have available for your assignment. The pacing of your studies comes outside the scope of this unit, but it can be very de-motivating when you no longer feel in control of your studies because – for whatever reason – you have fallen behind. So it is extremely important to meet the deadlines set by the course team in your course calendar whenever possible.

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4.3 Essays

Now let's turn to essays.

Activity 4

Note down what you consider to be the purpose of an essay.

Discussion

Michel de Montaigne, a French philosopher,
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4.2 Reports

Let's look at reports first.

Activity 3

Note down what you consider to be the purpose of a report.

Discussion

Your answer may well depend on the subje
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4.1 Writing requirements

Being a successful writer in one area doesn't always make it easy to know what is required in another. Here are some general questions that you can ask to help define the requirements for particular pieces of writing:

  • What will my tutor be expecting? (this is sometimes phrased as ‘think about the audience’)

  • What is the most appropriate format: report or essay? Do I have a choice, or is it stipulated in any guidance notes I've been
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