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10 Subordinate legislation

The time available to committees and the Scottish Parliament is limited. The Parliament sits on Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays. Committees will normally meet on a Tuesday or Wednesday (occasionally Monday). This means that it may not be possible to hear all detailed aspects of a particular area of legislation quickly. A system, similar to the one used in the UK Parliament, has therefore been developed to allow for the creation of subordinate legislation.

An Act of Parliament is refe
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7.1 Reserved and devolved matters

As stated earlier, the UK Parliament can still legislate on reserved matters and also on devolved matters, with the agreement of the Scottish Parliament. This section looks at the law making process at Westminster. It is a very different process, which involves both the Houses of the Westminster Parliament.

An Act of the UK Parliament also starts off as a Bill, which, if approved by a majority in the House of Commons and the House of Lords, will become an Act of the Westminster Parliame
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1.2 Note taking

Different ways of note taking include:

  1. Re-writing:

    Here, the rewording of main parts in a unit or article is undertaken. The advantage of this method is that you have thought about course concepts and ideas, and put them into your own words. Here you are summarising points and trying to do this concisely. This does not mean copying directly from the text (unless it is a short quotation you have referenced and chosen to illustrate a point
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6.3 The relationship between making, interpreting and applying rules

Although the processes of making, interpreting and applying rules can be explored separately, as we have done in this unit, it is important to realise that they are all part of one larger process. A new rule is often made because the interpretation and application of an existing rule does not solve the problems which that rule now has to confront. In turn, that new rule may be drafted in such a way that its interpretation leads to consequences that were unintended by the rule-maker, and the p
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6.2 Applying other people's rules

The process of interpretation is very closely related to that of application. The reason is simple – before applying a rule, the person applying it must interpret it to see whether the conduct in question is one to which the rule applies. Sometimes this will be straightforward, and sometimes not, as will be seen in Activity 7. The purpose of this activity
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2,2 The right to confidence

Those who allege that their privacy has been invaded commonly rely on the action of ‘breach of the right to confidence’. The common law right to confidence is a recognised right. The essence of the right to confidence may be summarised as misuse of private information. The English courts have established, in numerous decisions, that obtaining or publishing unauthorised photographs or information amounts to a breach of confidence in situations where a ‘duty of confidence’ exists. The d
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6.3 The principle of direct effect

Does the principle of supremacy of EU law mean that the ECJ is the only court in charge of applying and enforcing EU law? The answer to this question is ‘no’, which is the consequence of the principle of direct effect. Certain provisions of EU law may confer rights or impose obligations on individuals that national courts are bound to recognise and enforce. This means that the national courts must apply the directly applicable EU rules and must do so in priority over any conflicting provi
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5.3.2 Directives

A directive is a Community act which ‘shall be binding, as to the result to be achieved, upon each Member State to which it is addressed, but shall leave to the national authorities the choice of form and methods’. A directive therefore has to be implemented by each EU member state through its own domestic legislative process. After the enactment of a directive, the EU member states will generally be given a period of time within which to bring their domestic law in line with the objectiv
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2.3 Application of the ECHR

The ECHR places an important emphasis on individual rights whilst trying to strike a balance between individual and collective rights.

Activity 1 Drafting a charter of rights

0 hours 15 minutes
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3.6 Additional practice

Here is a mixed bag of exercises, in case you feel that you need more practice. Do the exercises which you feel will help you.


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3.3 Have I given due consideration to units of measurement?

Many mathematical problems include units of measurement. The measurement may be of length, weight, time, temperature or currency. The UK uses both metric and imperial units.

The table below gives the units of length that are in everyday use in the UK, but you may know some others.

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Try some yourself

1 Without using your calculator solve the following calculations.

  • (a) 3 + 5 × 2 = ?

  • (b) 12 − 6 + 6 = ?

  • (c) 6 + (5 + 4) × 3 = ?

  • (
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3.2 Have I used the correct order for my calculation?

When calculating an answer it is important that you give careful consideration to the order of operations used in the calculation. If you are using a mixture of operations remember that certain operations take priority in a calculation. Consider the following, apparently, simple sum.

   1 + 2 × 3 = ?

What answer would you give?

Did you give 7 as your response, or 9?

The correct answer is 7 but can you explain why?

If you have a calculator handy, check that it
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1.5.1 Try some yourself

1 Round 2098 765

  • (a) to 1 s.f.

  • (b) to 2 s.f.

  • (c) to 3 s.f.

  • (d) to 4 s.f.

An
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1.3.1 Try some yourself

1 Round the numbers below:

  • (a) to the nearest 10.

  • (b) to the nearest 100.

  • (c) to the nearest 1000.

  325 089,  45 982,  11 985
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • round a given whole number to the nearest 10, 100, 1000 and so on;

  • round a decimal number to a given number of decimal places or significant figures;

  • use rounded numbers to find rough estimates for calculations;

  • use a calculator for decimal calculations involving +, −, × and ÷, giving your answer to a specified accuracy (e.g. decimal places or significant figures) and checking your an
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Introduction

For many calculations you use a calculator. The main aim of this unit is to help you to do this in a sensible and fruitful way. Using a calculation to solve a problem involves four main stages:

  • Stage 1: working out what calculation you want to do;

  • Stage 2: working out roughly what size of answer to expect from your calculation;

  • Stage 3: carrying out the calculation;

  • Stage 4: interpreting the answer – Doe
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1.7.3 What is proportion?

A common criticism of many children's and some adults' drawings is that certain parts are not ‘in proportion’. That means that they are either too big or too small in relation to the rest of the masterpiece. ‘In proportion’ means being in the same ratio. Imagine that you have drawn a picture of the front of your house, reducing it in scale to one twentieth of its size.

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1.4: Price ratios and price indices

Aims The main aim of this section is to look at some different ways of measuring price increases.

In this section you will be looking at measuring price changes using price indices. In order to do this you will need to understand the concept of a price ratio. Price ratios are another way of looking at price increases or decreases, related to the proportional and percentage increases and decreases you have seen before.


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1.3.4: Calculating means using frequencies and calculating weighted means

In some situations, various values in the batch get repeated (there may be a limited number of different values that can occur, for example). It can be simpler to group the data and record the number of times with which each different value occurs. The number is called the frequency. The following example explores this possibility and comes up with an equivalent formula for calculating the mean of the batch.

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