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PerspectiveUnitClassDebate3

Video link (see supported sites below). Please use the original link, not the shortcut, e.g. www.youtube.com/watch?v=abcde

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The best books of 2015
This year saw a boom in dark books about the future of America, new translated fiction and accounts of the battle of Waterloo. Our correspondents discuss the finest books on their shelves
Author(s): The Economist

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The Future for Business Schools
How relevant are business schools for today's managers and companies? How can schools provide practical support for industry whilst maintaining standards of academic rigour in their research. Are business schools effective in managing the demands of students, government, business and the research sector? The University of Warwick recently hosted a Future of Business School Forum which explored how the business school model needs to develop to meet the demands of the business and academic worl
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STOP-principe : Kom te voet of met de fiets naar school
actiefiche_bao-stop-principe.png

Deze MOS-actiefiche prikkelt schoolteams om samen werk te maken van het STOP-principe. Via de methodiek van onderzoekend leren nodigt de leerkracht haar/zijn leerlingen uit om alles te weten te komen over mobiliteit, en dit vanuit een brede …


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4.2 Narrowing the focus

Offering a unique value proposition involves designing a value-driven operating model. This is a combination of operating processes, management systems, business structures and culture that will give the organisation the ability to deliver superior value. The value-driven operating model is the means of delivering the value proposition.

Organisations that are market leaders have value-driven cultures and management systems that treat all employees as ‘part-time marketers’ (Gu
Author(s): The Open University

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What's happening to our media
The Reuters Institute's Director of Research, Rasmus Kleis Nielsen, gives the first seminar of our 'The Business and Practice of Journalism' series for Michaelmas Term, 2017.
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3.6 Health education

The poor were not the only targets of health education. Campaigns against tuberculosis and venereal disease were aimed at all classes. Advice was dispensed through exhibitions, lectures, classes, posters, radio talks and films. Tuberculosis, the public was told, was best combated by a generally healthy lifestyle – fresh air, exercise and hygiene. The 1939 film Stand Up and Breathe, made by the National Association for the Prevention of Tuberculosis (NAPT), promoted all sorts of outdo
Author(s): The Open University

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3.5 The health of mothers and children

The health of mothers and infants was one target for action. France was among the first to introduce infant welfare schemes, as low birth rates, high infant mortality and defeat in the Franco-Prussian War led politicians to fear for the future strength of the nation. Diarrhoea among bottle-fed babies was singled out as a preventable cause of high infant mortality. From the 1890s, charities and local authorities set up infant welfare clinics called gouttes de lait, which encouraged moth
Author(s): The Open University

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3.3 Hygiene

Good hygiene – a clean home and a clean body – would also appear to have been available to all classes, but again, it was easier for the wealthier classes to achieve these goals. Newer houses, with bathrooms and laundries, modern plumbing and sanitary facilities, and servants to do the hard work, ensured that the middle and upper classes could enjoy regular baths (hot and cold), clean clothes and clean homes.

Exercise and good personal hygiene were not just a means of protecting hea
Author(s): The Open University

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3.2 Health and wealth

While all classes regarded good health as desirable, access to various means of preserving or promoting it varied according to economic circumstances. For the upper and middle classes, with substantial amounts of disposable income, a wide range of options were available. They could access information about how to protect their health through books and articles in magazines. Many of these books were written (or at least claimed to be written) by doctors and other health-care professionals. An
Author(s): The Open University

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2 Patterns of disease

Before looking at how people dealt with ill health, you need to know what sort of medical conditions were prevalent. Between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, all over Europe, the prevailing pattern of mortality changed. Infectious diseases, which had killed huge numbers of people, were gradually brought under control. As life expectancy increased, degenerative diseases, associated with old age, began to cause more deaths. However, although people were living longer, they actually spent
Author(s): The Open University

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1 Access to healthcare, 1880–1930

The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries have often been described as a period of progress, when the poorer classes gained access to a whole range of medical services previously reserved for the wealthy. In the past, this opening up of care was largely attributed to the state. Across Europe, central and local governments created health insurance schemes and new welfare services to provide the poor with access to care, from general practitioners (GPs) to outpatient and hospital care,
Author(s): The Open University

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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit, you should be able to do the following:

  • describe the wide range of methods of promoting health, preventing disease and providing care that were available to patients of different social groups and classes;

  • be aware of the inequalities of services – in terms of both quality of care and access to different services – open to different social groups and classes;

  • assess the significance of the roles of central and local gov
    Author(s): The Open University

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Introduction

Access to healthcare is important to all of us. Did the arrival of state medicine in the twentieth century mean that everyone had access to good medical services? If you fell sick in 1930 where could you get treatment – from a GP, a hospital, a nurse? This unit shows that in the early twentieth century, access to care was unequally divided. The rich could afford care; working men, women and children were helped by the state; others had to rely on their own resources.

This study unit i
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References

Barker-Benfield, G.J. (1992) The Culture of Sensibility: Sex and Society in Eighteenth-Century Britain, Chicago and London, University of Chicago Press.
Jackson, S.W. (1970) ‘Force and kindred notions in eighteenth-century neurophysiology and medical psychology’, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, vol. 44, pp. 397–410, 539–54.
Lawrence, C. (1979) ‘The
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3 Conclusion

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, a series of innovative models of the body was produced, from the mechanical to the mathematical to the sensible. As groundbreaking anatomical investigation and physiological experimentation were carried out, the map of the body changed, and different parts (vessels, glands, nerves) acquired visibility and became the focus of much research. New atlases and images of the body were produced to help students grasp the object of their study. We cannot d
Author(s): The Open University

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2.2 The popularisation of ideas

One of the media that helped to popularise the importance of nerves and the concept of sensibility was to be found outside medical encounters, in a new and extremely successful literary genre, the ‘novel of sentiment’. Writers such as Samuel Richardson, Laurence Sterne and Henry Mackenzie, who were familiar with the current medico-physiological debate, openly drew on these notions and made their characters' sensibility and response to external events the driving force of their writing (Ba
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2.1 The sensible body

For centuries, and well into the early modern period, sense experience, including seeing, hearing and touching, as well as bodily movement, had been explained according to the precepts of Galenic physiology – that is, as the result of the action of animal spirits flowing along the nerves between the brain and the periphery. Nerves were understood as hollow ducts that distributed animal spirits to sustain sensation and motion. In his groundbreaking model of the body as a machine, Descartes r
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1.2 The poor as patients

Patients' accounts of hospital life in the early modern period are notoriously thin on the ground, so historians have turned to other sources. These include hospital registers, which became more detailed and accurate in the eighteenth century, and the notebooks of medical students, who were increasingly attracted to hospitals for on-the-job training. Both types of document have been extensively used to throw light on the daily routine of patients and the treatment they received. Here I draw e
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