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6 Audio clip 5: Alex Zinga

Figure 4: Alex Zinga

At the time of the interview, Alex Zinga had recently turned 60. She lived on her own in a small terraced house in Sheffield.
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4 Audio clip 3: Enid Francis

Enid Francis lived in a modern residential area on the outskirts of Derby. She shared a house with her husband, Wally, and two grown-up sons, Mark and John. Her husband had had to give up work eighteen months before his retirement, because of a heart complaint. Their two sons, aged 35 and 32, were both autistic. Enid's day was organised around meeting their needs for care and support. On weekdays, they attended a day centre, which she would have to get them ready for. When they came home in t
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3 Audio clip 2: John Avery

Figure 2: John Avery (right) with Mr Asghor

John Avery, a single parent of a teenage son and a daughter, lived on a council estate on the outskirts
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2 Audio clip 1: Diane Mallett

Figure 1: Diane Mallett with Stanley mallett (left) and Paul Mallett

About seven or eight years before the interview, Diane and her husband Roger a
Author(s): The Open University

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1 Arrangements for care and support

In this audio unit, Helen Robinson interviews five different, but not untypical, people who have set up arrangements for care and support, which suit themselves and others. All the arrangements involve cash payments, or have done so at some point in time. However, they all also include transactions which, though they aren't made in cash, involve other forms of exchange – goods, emotions, knowledge, and/or help.

Before you listen to each of the clips, take time to read through the note
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Learning outcomes

On completion of this unit, you should be able to:

  • understand that people who give and receive help and support depend on a mix of paid and unpaid sources.


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6.4 Athletes and oxygen intake

In Section 4.4, we ranked a group of athletes in terms of heart rate. Now let us consider the same athletes in the same sports, but from the point of view of how efficient their respiratory system needs to be to perform in their chosen sports.

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6.1 Introduction

We have learnt that part of the reason the heart pumps blood around is to make sure that the body gets a fresh supply of oxygen. So in the same way that our hearts need to keep beating, we need to keep breathing oxygen into our lungs to survive. But what is the function of oxygen? Why does our body need oxygen, and what does it do with it once we have breathed it in? These are some of the questions that we will examine in first part of this section.

In the second part of this section, w
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3 The heart, blood and the lungs

We will now concentrate on the heart, the engine of the body. We will also consider the related topics of blood and blood flow, and the role of the lungs and oxygen in the body.

We all know that the heart is very important but what exactly does the heart do? Why is the blood so important? What functions do the lungs perform? In the next sections, we will try to provide at least a basic understanding so we can answer these questions and begin to understand why knowing about the heart is
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2.1 Introduction

The human body is a sophisticated and amasing entity. Think about the mechanical way the limbs operate, the electrical brain functions and chemicals working together in the different body organs. All of these activities integrate in a largely seamless way to help keep us alive in ways of which most of us are barely aware! Many people are content that their own body works, and don't care much about the details. However, if we want to understand how our own body, or those of elite athletes, fun
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Learning outcomes

Here's how the sections of this unit can help you.

  • A first look at the human body gives you the opportunity to gain an overall appreciation of how the body works in a scientific sense, and understand that a scientific view is necessary for us to study how performance in sport is linked to performance of the body.

  • Athletes and efficient hearts explains the function of the heart briefly and looks at the importance of healthy hearts in sport.


  • Author(s): The Open University

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Introduction

With the announcement of the summer Olympics coming to London in 2012, fierce competition between football clubs in the domestic league, and developments in coaching and training throughout all areas of physical fitness, there has never been a better time to learn more about sport. Many of us take for granted what we know about sport, whether we participate or spectate. But have you ever thought about delving deeper, to find out more about the sport you follow in particular and how it fits in
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2 Terminology: patients or people?

In this unit ‘the patient’ has been referred to on several occasions. One reason is the universal usage of the term and the ease with which it is understood. To identify someone as a patient immediately situates them as someone in receipt of medical treatment. However, the term itself is not without difficulty, as sociologists critical of medicine have been quick to point out, since it carries associations of power and authority.

Labelling theory is a useful concept that assesses h
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1 Expectations and administrative pressures

The medical prognoses and diagnoses of dying raise expectations of what will actually happen to the dying person. For example, someone is diagnosed with terminal lung cancer, they will be given a forecast that covers the estimated length of time before death, any likely symptoms, the development of the illness, and possible treatment(s). Of course, these types of medical expectations are not unique to death and dying: they are found in all treatments of illness, and no doubt you will have had
Author(s): The Open University

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Learning outcomes

After completing this unit you should be able to:

Knowledge and understanding

  • demonstrate sound knowledge and critical understanding of multifaceted and diverse approaches to death, dying and bereavement;

  • explore multiple contexts of bereavement.

Cognitive skills

  • integrate different experiences of death, dying and bereavement with theoretical knowledge.

Practical and/or professional skills
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Introduction

This unit helps you to explore the extent to which death and dying in western societies are medical events and what aspects of death and dying might be neglected as a consequence. The unit covers the way that such things as medicine provide the context of the experiences associated with the end of life.

This unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course Death and dying
Author(s): The Open University

Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

The material acknowledged below contains Proprietary content which is used under licence (not subject to Creative Commons licence). See Terms and conditions.

Text

Figures


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3.3 Concerns about being a carer

Some of the things people mentioned were:

  • financial difficulties
  • loss of status
  • relationships if someone gives up paid work
  • physical and emotional demands
  • fears for the future
  • having to ‘fight red tape’
  • worry that they might seem to be overreacting.

Through their work, Jonathan and Jane identify other areas for concern. These include:

  • neglect of carers' o
    Author(s): The Open University

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References

Bradley, J. and Specht, D. (1999) ‘Successful ageing and creativity in later life’, Journal of Ageing Studies, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 457–472.
Boyle, G. (2005) ‘The role of autonomy in explaining mental ill-health and depression among older people in long-term care settings’, Ageing and Society, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 731–748.
Gilligan, R. (2001) ‘Promo
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2.1 Case study: Redcar & Cleveland Mind

This case study introduces you to Jane Reast, manager of Redcar & Cleveland Mind, the organisation' members, and the works of its various projects. You will shortly be watching three videos, which will give you an opportunity to see consultation in action.

The mental health case study is based at Redcar & Cleveland Mind, a voluntary sector, community-based mental health organisation in north-east England. It provides a range of services and activities, working with several organisations
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