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6.1 Introduction

Scheduling is about deciding the time that each task will take to do and the sequence in which the tasks will be carried out. There are a number of approaches to estimating the time and effort (and, therefore, cost) required to complete a project. Some estimates may be based on past experience but, because each project is essentially unique, this alone may not be sufficient. A clearer picture can be obtained by measuring each task in terms of the content of the work, the effort required to ca
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4 models and methodologies offered

One of the more visible parts of the service many consultants offer is the model or models on which they base their work. When consulting, activity always needs to be related to the local situation. The consultant will normally start by trying to understand the client perspective, but then seek to expand that perspective, using theory and experience from elsewhere.

So you will probably need information on the theoretical models used by any consultants you are considering. In addition to
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2 Identifying potential consultants

Once you have decided on the sort of consultancy needed, the first problem, mentioned by Clark (1995), is identifying potential consultants. I asked an associate with considerable experience in this how she went about identifying potential consultants. Her initial, and unhelpful, response was ‘you just know’. Tacit knowledge is clearly important here. Probing elicited the following:

Firstly my organisation was
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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce materia
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Conclusion

In this course we have looked at how companies raise equity finance.

We have examined how companies may move from private equity finance, supported by the venture capital companies, to public equity finance through an IPO. We then went on to study seasoned or secondary equity offerings (SEOs) with particular focus on rights issues.

We looked at why companies may choose to list on more than one exchange and at the circumstances that might lead to a company de-listing and reverting
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand private equity and the role of venture capital companies in providing this

  • understand why and how public equity issues can be undertaken

  • look at the reasons for cross-listing on stock exchanges

  • examine why a company might de-list from an exchange and return to private ownership.


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References

Baker, M. (2006). Private communication, Business in the Community, 29 March.
Brewster, D. (2004). ‘CalPERS wave-making brings flak’, Financial Times Fund Management, 9 August.
Business Week (2004). ‘Special report: corporate governance, investors fight back’, 17 May.
Butz, C. (2003). Decomposing SRI Pe
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3.1 Codes of conduct

One of the principles of the European Union Emissions Trading System discussed by Schultz and Williamson (2005) is that an organisation accepts responsibility for the performance of their suppliers. In an age where multinational corporations are able to reduce the production costs of their goods and services by offshoring it to whoever can meet the specification at the lowest cost, what responsibility do they have for the conditions under which production actually occurs?

One of the fir
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3.1 Evaluation while developing the vision

A project is often shaped through discussion among those developing the vision and direction of the project. They may agree in general terms about what is to be achieved, but have to make a number of choices before deciding how to proceed. It may be important to allow time for different views to be heard and considered, and for attitudes to change and – hopefully – converge.

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2.4 Problems in closure

Projects do not always go according to plan. If problems develop during the closure period there are particular difficulties. The following story is told by an integration manager of an IT project.

Activity 3

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3 Conclusion

This course has introduced a series of ideas that relate to campaigning and how organisations can adapt their outlook in order to achieve their campaigning goals.


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The law and social work in Scotland
This album tackles the complex relationships social workers experience in the wide spectrum of their work, from those with families affected by social deprivation to those with judges, lawyers and other members of the legal system. The tracks analyse the role of the family in Scottish life in relation to the many voluntary bodies that exist to assist and inform them, and the legal obligations of social workers. Participants from single mothers to solicitors presented their perspectives in a ser
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Diabetes care
At least 171 million people worldwide have diabetes, and this figure is set to double by 2030. This chronic condition, which occurs when the body cannot produce or effectively use the insulin it needs, can be the cause of many serious health complications leading, amongst other problems, to blindness, foot ulcers and kidney failures. This album is a must-watch for diabetes sufferers and medical staff training to work with diabetes patients. Six video tracks introduce various aspects of a patient
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Riding the Good Health Train
In rural South Africa there are thousands of people who receive little or no medical care. So what can be done for them? One answer is Phelophepa, the Good Health Train, which makes a circuit of the country every two years. This album joins the team of doctors, medical students and health workers on the train as they visit the town of Taba Nchu. In the weeks before Phelophepa arrives, community activists try to raise public awareness so that as many people as possible are able to benefit. And be
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Introduction to sport, fitness and management
This series of tracks looks at Health and Fitness centres and how they are run as well as providing an insight into the training of future elite athletes in Britain. Material is taken from The Open University course E112 Introduction to sport, fitness and management. The OpenLearn team.
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Introduction

The majority of people who sleep on the streets, and in hostels and night shelters are men. However, the number of women, particularly younger women, in these circumstances has increased (Anderson et al., 1993). They are often people with complex care and support needs, which go way beyond the provision of accommodation. But, as you will learn in this course, complex needs are both a cause and a product of homelessness.

In this audio course, you will hear from four people, who will each
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