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1.4.2 P is for Presentation

By presentation, we mean, the way in which the information is communicated. You might want to ask yourself:

  • Is the language clear and easy to understand?

  • Is the information clearly laid out so that it is easy to read?

  • Are the fonts large enough and clear?

  • Are the colours effective? (e.g. white or yellow on black can be difficult to read)

  • If there are graphics or photos, do they help
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1.2.2 Choosing Keywords

Keywords are significant words which define the subject you are looking for. The importance of keywords is illustrated by the fact that there is a whole industry around providing advice to companies on how to select keywords for their websites that are likely to make it to the top of results lists generated by search engines. We often choose keywords as part of an iterative process; usually if we don't hit on the right search terms straight off, most of us tweak them as we go along based on t
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6 Judges

Judges play a central role in our legal system. According to our unwritten constitution, judges, who are employed to hear legal cases, are expected to deliver their decisions (known as judgments) in a completely impartial manner. They are required to apply the law strictly without allowing any p
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5.2 Barristers

In 2008 there were approximately 12,000 barristers in independent practice known as the Bar. Their governing body is the Bar Council. It acts as their regulatory body and sets the requirements for training, qualification and professional development. The main role of a barrister is advocacy i
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4.6 Orders in Council

These are more correctly called Orders of the Legislative Committee of the Privy Council. The Government can make law through the Privy Council without going through the full parliamentary process. Orders in Council can be used by the Government in times of state emergency under the Emergency Powers Act 1920 and the Civil Contingencies Act 2004. However, they are also used to give legal effect to European law under the European Communities Act 1972 and to amend other types of law. An e
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4.5 Byelaws

Byelaws can be made by local authorities and certain other public corporations and companies concerning issues within the scope of their geographic or other areas of responsibility. So, a County Council can make byelaws affecting the whole county, whilst a District or Town Council can only make byelaws for the district or town. Byelaws are usually created when there is no general legislation that deals with an issue that concerns people in a local area. If a council wishes to make a byelaw it
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3.3.5 Third reading

This is the final vote on the Bill. It is almost a formality since a Bill which has passed through all the stages above is unlikely to fail at this late stage. In fact, in the House of Commons there will only be a further debate on the Bill if at least six MPs request it. In the House of Lords amendments may sometimes be made at this stage.


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The House of Commons

The members of the House of Commons are elected by the public, with the country being divided into constituencies and each of these returning one Member of Parliament (known as an MP). There must be a general election every five years, though an election can be called sooner by the Prime Minister. The Government of the day is generally formed by the political party which has the most MPs elected to the House of Commons. The Prime Minister will usually be the leader of the largest political pa
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Introduction

This unit is designed to introduce you to the supreme law-making body within the UK: the UK Parliament situated at Westminster, London. You will also examine the wide variety of sources that influence Parliament including constituents, pressure groups and Parliamentary subcommittees. This unit will also introduce you to the skills required in reading legal cases, reading and understanding Acts of Parliament, taking notes and summarising ideas.

This unit is an adapted extract from the co
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3.3.2 Key characteristics of being a sole trader

In general terms, some of the key characteristics of being a sole trader are that:

  • you ‘own’ the business; strictly, you own the property of the business, and have a variety of other legal capacities. In a more general sense, we can say that the wealth represented by the business is yours; in other words, you are entitled to all the capital of the business.

  • you make the decisions which affect the nature and running of the business.
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3.2 Forms of business organisation, or ‘business mediums’

If you were to carry on the business described in Activity 2, you would be carrying on business on your own. You would be what is called a ‘sole trader’. We will look at the consequences of being a sole trader in a little bit more detail in this section.

However, not all businesses are run by sole traders. There are several different ways in which
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10 Subordinate legislation

The time available to committees and the Scottish Parliament is limited. The Parliament sits on Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays. Committees will normally meet on a Tuesday or Wednesday (occasionally Monday). This means that it may not be possible to hear all detailed aspects of a particular area of legislation quickly. A system, similar to the one used in the UK Parliament, has therefore been developed to allow for the creation of subordinate legislation.

An Act of Parliament is refe
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7.1 Reserved and devolved matters

As stated earlier, the UK Parliament can still legislate on reserved matters and also on devolved matters, with the agreement of the Scottish Parliament. This section looks at the law making process at Westminster. It is a very different process, which involves both the Houses of the Westminster Parliament.

An Act of the UK Parliament also starts off as a Bill, which, if approved by a majority in the House of Commons and the House of Lords, will become an Act of the Westminster Parliame
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1.2 Note taking

Different ways of note taking include:

  1. Re-writing:

    Here, the rewording of main parts in a unit or article is undertaken. The advantage of this method is that you have thought about course concepts and ideas, and put them into your own words. Here you are summarising points and trying to do this concisely. This does not mean copying directly from the text (unless it is a short quotation you have referenced and chosen to illustrate a point
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6.3 The relationship between making, interpreting and applying rules

Although the processes of making, interpreting and applying rules can be explored separately, as we have done in this unit, it is important to realise that they are all part of one larger process. A new rule is often made because the interpretation and application of an existing rule does not solve the problems which that rule now has to confront. In turn, that new rule may be drafted in such a way that its interpretation leads to consequences that were unintended by the rule-maker, and the p
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6.2 Applying other people's rules

The process of interpretation is very closely related to that of application. The reason is simple – before applying a rule, the person applying it must interpret it to see whether the conduct in question is one to which the rule applies. Sometimes this will be straightforward, and sometimes not, as will be seen in Activity 7. The purpose of this activity
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2,2 The right to confidence

Those who allege that their privacy has been invaded commonly rely on the action of ‘breach of the right to confidence’. The common law right to confidence is a recognised right. The essence of the right to confidence may be summarised as misuse of private information. The English courts have established, in numerous decisions, that obtaining or publishing unauthorised photographs or information amounts to a breach of confidence in situations where a ‘duty of confidence’ exists. The d
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6.3 The principle of direct effect

Does the principle of supremacy of EU law mean that the ECJ is the only court in charge of applying and enforcing EU law? The answer to this question is ‘no’, which is the consequence of the principle of direct effect. Certain provisions of EU law may confer rights or impose obligations on individuals that national courts are bound to recognise and enforce. This means that the national courts must apply the directly applicable EU rules and must do so in priority over any conflicting provi
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5.3.2 Directives

A directive is a Community act which ‘shall be binding, as to the result to be achieved, upon each Member State to which it is addressed, but shall leave to the national authorities the choice of form and methods’. A directive therefore has to be implemented by each EU member state through its own domestic legislative process. After the enactment of a directive, the EU member states will generally be given a period of time within which to bring their domestic law in line with the objectiv
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