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Acknowledgements

>Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

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Summary

  1. The main acute effects of ethanol are on the nervous system, causing characteristic changes in behaviour and judgement. There are particular issues with regard to driving, with different countries setting various ‘safe’ limits for blood-ethanol concentration. Very high blood-ethanol concentrations can be fatal.

  2. Hangovers are unpleasant and are poorly understood. Various mechanisms have been proposed including direct effects of ethanol o
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1.6.1 What works in helping people to stop or reduce their alcohol intake?

There is at the moment no known cure for alcoholism. Both psychological and drug treatments are used in treating excessive alcohol intake (Buonopane and Petrakis, 2005). The plethora of different types of treatment in itself may indicate that there are no guaranteed results, and the condition remains hard to resolve.

Throughout England a mapping exercise (Alcohol Concern, 2002) estimated that there were over 300 advice and counselling services, 100 day programmes and nearly 200 resident
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5.5 Parents and adult family carers

Much has been written around the concept of parenting capacity, which according to the Assessment Framework (DH, 2000) is one of the key dimensions of child welfare (along with developmental needs and the environment in which parenting takes place). The Department of Health sets out the following ‘Dimensions of Parenting Capacity’ which we summarise in Author(s): The Open University

3.5 Identity and identities

So far in this extract we have considered the importance of people's individual biographies to an understanding of who they are. Such biographies play an important part in making us who we are and we will now explore some of the ideas that have contributed to social workers' understanding of the concept and importance of ‘identity’. These ideas are all examples of the kind of ‘knowledge’ or ‘theory’ that informs social workers' practice.


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2.4.3 Ethics and accountability

Ethics is one aspect of values. One way of understanding ethics is in terms of the resolution of professional moral dilemmas. Social workers frequently play an important part in resolving such moral dilemmas, for example when making decisions involving risk, protection and restriction of liberty. The way in which you act in these situations should be guided by something beyond your personal beliefs alone. You have to be aware of the publicly stated values of your agency and make skilful judge
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2.4.2 What are social work values?

Traditionally, one of the things that distinguishes a profession is that it has a set of principles to which its members have to be committed and must put into practice. Sarah Banks defines social work values as:

a set of fundamental moral/ethical principles to which social workers are/should be committed.

(Banks, 2001, p. 6)

The British Association of Social Workers issued a revised C
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2.3.2 Social sciences

Many of the approaches to social work have their roots in the social sciences; and sociology, psychology and social policy have long historical connections with social work education. Sociology and psychology could be very simply described as being the study of societies and the study of the human mind and behaviour, respectively. Social policy is a newer discipline and involves studying the way in which systems of taxation, benefits and service provision are organised and the ideas that lie
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1.1.3 Time

The recommended duration of an aerobic exercise session is dependent on several factors, such as the participant’s goals and fitness levels, and the intensity of exercise. Obviously, the higher the intensity of the exercise, the shorter will be its duration. As a general guide the ACSM recommends between twenty and sixty minutes of aerobic exercise, which can be undertaken either continuously – i.e. all at once – or intermittently – i.e. in shorter bouts accumulated during the day (AC
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3.3 Mental health as business: the profit motive

There is little question that the use of drugs to treat mental distress has become the dominant strategy. The historian Edward Shorter puts it graphically:

If there is one central intellectual reality at the end of the twentieth century, it is that the biological approach to psychiatry – treating mental illness as a genetically influenced disorder of brain chemistry – has been a smashing success.

(Shorter
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2.3 Community care, fear and the ‘high-risk’ service user

So far in this unit you have seen how the concept of risk has come to suggest danger. This section explores in greater depth how the changes that have led to this situation have impacted on mental health policies and practice. The next activity involves reading an article to help you consider risk in the context of mental health services.


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3.15 Key ethical issues for CAM practitioners: respect for autonomy and consent

Many practitioners claim that the patient-centred nature of their therapy means they automatically respect the user's autonomy. On closer inspection, CAM practitioners’ commitment to respecting the users' wishes and values may be less patient-centred than they would like users to believe. Some CAM practitioners may fail to acknowledge users' rights, particularly in the area of risk disclosure and gaining consent to treat, or even touch, the user. Some CAM practitioners mistakenly believe th
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3.14 Key ethical issues for CAM practitioners: negotiation of contracts with users

To benefit users, the user and the practitioner must work towards common goals that have been explicitly discussed. It is especially important for the user to understand the limits of what the therapy can deliver and not be under any delusions about the likely extent of recovery. What should CAM practitioners tell users about the therapy and about themselves? Practitioners cannot assume that users know what their therapy entails. A useful starting point might be to give users an introduction
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3.4 Myths about ethics

The media portray most ethical issues in highly charged terms, so it can be hard to understand what professional ethics is about, and what the full scope of ethical behaviour amounts to. In short, the media rarely explore the ‘grey’ areas of many ethical decisions. For example, the issue of abortion is viewed as either ‘pro choice’ or ‘pro life’. In this way the following myths about ethics are perpetrated.


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Introduction

The stresses of modern living take their toll in terms of our health. This unit is formed from three extracts. The first extract is called ‘Understanding why people use complementary and alternative medicine'. This part discusses: the meaning of health, its origins in terms of components and beliefs. Also models of health care delivery are discussed together with concepts and beliefs about complementary and alternative medicine. Extract two 'Critical issues in the therapeutic relationship'
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1.6.4 Blogs

The founder ofTechnorati   claims that the number of ‘blogs’doubles every five months and that the creation rate is approaching two per second. One estimate I read in July 2010 put the number at 400 million ‘blogs’. Because these online diaries offer instant publishing opportunities, you potentially have access to a wealth of knowledge from commentators and experts (if they blog) in a wi
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1.4.8 Summary

In this section we have introduced you to the PROMPT checklist as a useful tool for assessing the quality of any piece of information. If you use it regularly you will find that you develop the ability to scan information quickly and identify strengths and weaknesses. As a closing exercise you might like to pick one of these websites:

Diagnose-Me.com

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1.4.6 P is for Provenance

The provenance of a piece of information (i.e. who produced it? where did it come from?) may provide another useful clue to its reliability. It represents the 'credentials' of a piece of information that support its status and perceived value. It is therefore very important to be able to identify the author, sponsoring body or source of your information.

Why is this important?

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1.4.1 PROMPT

There is so much information available on the internet on every topic imaginable. But how do you know if it is any good? And if you find a lot more information than you really need, how do you decide what to keep and who to discard?

In this section we are going to introduce a simple checklist to help you to judge the quality of the information you find. Before we do this, spend a few minutes thinking about what is meant by information quality.

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