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5.6 Against whom are rights claims made?

The third set of problems relates to whom the rights claims are made against, and what kinds of claims can be made. In the case of individual human rights, a rights claim is usually addressed to or claimed against the legal order of the state. However, it is often one of the problems at the international level that either the state claimed against does not recognise the claim, or that the body claimed against is not a state (that is, a political entity that is in some sense morally accountabl
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2.3 Divisions that matter: thinking through territories

Without losing our focus on the planet as a whole, it is time now to return to what Paani Laupepa from Tuvalu refers to as the ‘front line’ of climate change: those islands that are particularly vulnerable to rising sea level and associated climatic hazards (Lynas, 2003). It has often been said that low-lying coral islands like Tuvalu or Kiribas in the Pacific Ocean, or the Maldives in the Indian Ocean, are acting as a kind of early warning system for global climate change. Sea level is e
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4.1 Uniting the developing countries

Several attempts have been made to form a united front of developing countries to negotiate a better deal at the WTO. They have met with little success because there are substantial conflicts of interest between them, for example between agricultural importers and exporters, and between small countries and those larger developing countries that have been able individually to use the lure of opening their markets to get a better deal from developed countries. Conflicts of interest arise too be
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3.2.1 Social disruption

In return for being granted enhanced market access by developed countries, which turned out to be somewhat illusory, developing countries agreed to open up their own markets. Indeed, for supporters of the UR, this was its biggest achievement. One of the central propositions of economic theory is that under certain conditions free trade is beneficial to a country – but there are inevitably winners and losers. As a country adjusts to free trade, some sectors of the economy advance, while othe
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Energy policy and climate change
The 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen presents a new focus for international debate and decisions about energy and its use. What are the countries of Western Europe and Scandinavia doing to promote sustainable energy production? Just how different will the future energy map of Europe look? And is energy policy principally a scientific issue or a political one? This album contains a series of films exploring energy policy in various countries around Europe in 2006, frame
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Design and Designing
How do you start to design a product? Can drawing techniques be learned? And why is modelling such a useful technique? This album introduces the basic skills necessary to communicate ideas on paper, as well as revealing the step-by-step processes for making three-dimensional models of objects, showing perspective in drawings and sketching complex objects. It also features a case study of the Strida folding bicycle, an idea taken from initial drawings to marketed product. This material forms part
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Business operations
This series of tracks examines the operations management in four service industries. Each has unique problems associated with their sector but they all have operational processes to ensure smooth delivery of their product. Material is taken from The Open University Course T883 Business operations: delivering value. The OpenLearn team.
First published on Fri, 26 M

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Water Treatment
Do you think about where your water comes from? In the UK each of us uses an average of about 150 litres of water per day! The seven video tracks in this album consider issues of demand and quality in water supply as well as treatment processes. They give information on methods of minimising waste, emergency water treatment and effluent control. This material forms part of T308 Environmental monitoring, modelling and control.Author(s): The OpenLearn team

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Noise Pollution
How do your ears work and what kind of sound levels can damage your hearing? The five video tracks in this album explain basic concepts such as units of noise, sound insulation and noise control. Car manufacturers like Lexus have developed the quiet car, but this kind of technology benefits the driver, not the people living beside busy roads. Locals from a Derbyshire village explain how the construction of the A50 has affected their lives. The Transport Research Laboratory analyses tyre noise on
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Digital Nepal
Nepal is one of the poorest countries in the world, so just how has it managed to develop a wireless network and promote innovation? This collection explores how Nepal has developed its digital technological infrastructure, how it is still developing from a complex political background and gives a sense of how different cultures around the world relate to digital technology. The videos look at the country's recent history, with particular focus on education, health, language and the economy. Th
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Introduction

In this course we examine one factor that very often seems to be found skulking around close to problems and solutions: temperature.

Almost whatever we do, wherever we are, temperature changes. Stay in the same spot and you'll find daytime and night-time temperatures can be markedly different. You may even find significant changes in temperature during the day. When moving you can encounter more rapid variations. For example, an aircraft might leave a tropical runway where the air tempe
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Structural materials in cells
Where does the structure of our body come from? This free course, Structural materials in cells, looks at the structure of cells and how proteins are used by both animals and plants to create a framework for cellular growth. You will also learn how a material as fine as spider silk can exceed the strength of steel. First publi
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Introduction

The optimistic approach to a problem is to view it as a challenge and an opportunity – a chance to make progress. In this course, the nature of problems is explored by looking at the way they are used as a stimulus for finding solutions. It is presumed from the start that you want to be involved in the process of finding solutions and that you are not expecting simply to be given the answers.

One example that is investigated in this course concerns how to devise lighter bicycle frames
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Introduction to finite element analysis
What is finite element analysis (what is it and why do we carry it out? This free course, Introduction to finite element analysis, introduces the essence of finite element analysis. As an example of its use, you will look at the case of FEA of the tub of a racing car. You will also have the opportunity to try out two exercises to carry out a simple analysis of a plate and a square beam. Author(s): Creator not set

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Structural devices
Microelectronics has enabled designers of integrated circuits to exercise complete control over the electrical characteristics of each component they create. This free course, Structural devices, will illustrate how such control is achieved and the various methods that can be applied in differing circumstances. First published on Tue,
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An introduction to design engineering
This free course, An introduction to design engineering, looks at the way in which engineers use ideas and approaches from the discipline of design thinking to inform their work. The complexity that people bring to design problems is introduced, along with some basic methods of dealing with such complexity. First published on Mon, 23 Ap
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2.8 Why do (only some) teams succeed?

Clearly, it is not possible to devise a set of rules which, if followed, would lead inexorably to team effectiveness. The determinants of a successful team are complex and not equivalent to following a set of prescriptions. However, the results of poor teamworking can be expensive, so it is useful to draw on research, experience and case studies to explore some general guidelines. What do I mean by 'team effectiveness'? – the achievement of goals alone? Where do the achievements of individu
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2.3.7 New types of team

In addition to the traditional types of teams or groups outlined above, recent years have seen the growth of interest in two other important types of team: 'self-managed teams' and 'self-organising teams'.

During the 1990s many organisations in the UK became interested in notions of empowerment and, often as a consequence, set up self-managed or empowered teams. An Industrial Society Survey (1995) commented:


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Conclusion

The building blocks of a basic optical-fibre communications link are the modulated light source, the fibre and the detector. There are choices to be made between different types of light source and fibre, with trade-offs between cost and performance. For example, for high signalling rates over long distances single-mode fibre will be used with a single-mode laser (possibly with external modulation) operating in the 1550 nm window, whereas for short-distance links operating at lower signalling
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4.4.1 FTTCab, FTTC, FTTB and hybrid coaxial fibre

The equipment needed at optical-fibre transmitters and receivers (lasers, photodiodes and the associated electronics) is more expensive than the equivalent for transmission over copper cables. With FTTH this equipment is needed in every home, and a substantial cost reduction is possible with schemes where the fibre doesn't go all the way to the home, but stops short, and copper links run from a shared fibre to several homes (Author(s): The Open University

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