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2 Discrimination in the labour market: introduction

Discrimination can manifest itself in all aspects of life. It may be evident in the type and location of housing available to certain groups, in their access to quality education and health care or how they are treated in the labour market. We will focus on the last of these considerations and, in particular, why the labour market status of some groups of workers is significantly worse than that for the population at large. This does not mean that discrimination in the labour market is a more
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The Final Cut
It is often said that a movie comes to life in the edit suite. Ben Harrex of Final Cut post production studios in London discusses five themes with examples; The Cut, The Dissolve, Cropping and Resizing, Titles and The Sound. Ben explains how the video editor has a huge amount of creative control over how the final product looks. This material forms part of The Open University course T215 Communication and information technologies.Author(s): The OpenLearn team

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Computer technology: robotic milking and interactive mirrors
What have computers got to do with cows? Can a wooden mirror help us understand the computing behind digital image capture? Neil Rowse is the first dairy farmer in the UK to use a computerised system that gives cows control over when they are milked, and allows him to remotely monitor the welfare of individual animals. Daniel Rozin has created an computer operated mirror made from 835 tilting wooden tiles. With the help of a digital camera and a computer programme, the wooden tiles mimic the di
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Visualisation: Visual representations of data and information
Modern society is often referred to as 'the information society' - but how can we make sense of all the information we are bombarded with? In this free course, Visualisation: Visual representations of data and information, you will learn how to interpret, and in some cases create, visual representations of data and information that help us to see things in a different way. Author(s): Creator not set

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Introduction

Enterprise systems are software applications that automate and integrate all many of the key business processes of an organisation. With some understanding of software development, you will learn about current development practices for this type of system and develop relevant skills to apply them to real-world problems. You will develop core skills in object-oriented analysis and design, allowing you to develop software that is fit for purpose, reusable and amenable to change.

This Open
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Living with the internet: learning online
Learning online is one of the great advantages of information technology. This free course, Living with the internet: learning online, will help you establish a safe and comfortable working environment to ensure that your study time at the computer screen does not impact on your health. It also looks at the basic skills for online study, such as file management and installing software. Author(s): Creator not set

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Systems thinking and practice
What is systems thinking and practice? The essence of systems thinking and practice is in 'seeing' the world in a particular way, because how you 'see' things affects the way you approach situations or undertake specific tasks. This free course will help you to learn about the problems of defining a system and meet some of the key concepts used in systems theory: boundary, environment, positive and negative feedback, etc. Author(s): Creator not set

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Processes that can be applied to data

Having looked at some forms of data, we now turn our attention to processes that can be applied to data. Each process that we consider in this section will input data of a specified form, and will result in a corresponding value. For example, one process, which we will call ASC, takes a character as input, and has as its resulting value the integer giving the ASCII code of the input character (as listed in Author(s): The Open University

2.5 Sequences

You have already met sequences briefly, and have seen that a sequence contains items given in a particular order, and that repetitions are of significance.

One might have a sequence containing integers, such as [22, −31, 44, 0, 2, 0, 11] or a sequence containing characters, such as [‘W’,‘o’,‘r’,‘d’]. However, we will aim to avoid mixing the forms of data in a sequence. A sequence of characters may also be referred to as a string, and that “Word” is another notation
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6.5.1 Virtual worlds

Are you bored with your surroundings? Do you sometimes wish you were someone else? Help may be at hand. All the digital models we have looked at so far are based on our own world. But we needn't be limited by this. Why not create completely new worlds inside the computer and live in them whenever we wish? It has already been done.


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6.1 Kings of infinite space?

I could be bounded in a nutshell and count myself a king of infinite space, were it not that I have bad dreams.

(Shakespeare, Hamlet)

This section draws together the themes of the previous sections by:

  • discussing how the digital world can be manipulated;

  • explaining how this process has significant implications for science, politics and
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5.5.5 Summary

In this section I've briefly considered the very contentious question of what digital representations mean, but this debate must be left to another course. I have also described some of the devices that take digital information back into the analogue world of sight and sound, presenting it in a form that is meaningful to human eyes and ears.


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5.3 Regaining meaning

Suppose for a minute that the numbers I presented above were generated by a scanner as it produced a bitmap of a photograph. Clearly, the machine on which they are stored will have to get the image back to us by means of a device that can render it into a form meaningful to the human eye – an output device. I shall shortly review such devices. However, there is still work to be done before the computer can pass digitally-encoded data to such a device. For a start it will need to have
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3.3 Compression

The previous section mentioned the large file size of bit-map representations of even small pictures. Therefore just a few images use up a great deal of storage space. This can be inconvenient for PC users, but in the case of a digital camera it presents a real problem. In addition, it is becoming increasingly popular to send digital pictures as email attachments, or via mobile phones using multimedia messaging services (MMS), but large files take a long time to transmit.

The way round
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2.2.1 Positive integers: denary numbers

The number system which we all use in everyday life is called the denary representation, or sometimes the decimal representation, of numbers. In this system, the ten digits 0 to 9 are used, either singly or in ordered groups. The important point for you to grasp is that when the digits are used in ordered groups, each digit is understood to have a weighting. For example, consider the denary number 549. Here 5 has the weighting of hundreds, 4 has the weighting of tens and
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12.1 Introduction

Data must be stored somewhere when it is not being manipulated. Modern ICT systems require increasingly large amounts of data to be stored for later use, and it is important that the data can be accessed quickly. Data may be stored on the stand-alone computer's hard disk in the form of files.

You may want to move files from one stand-alone computer to another. In addition, you may want to move files from a device, such as a digital camera, to a computer. These activities require some fo
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4.2 Using images to good effect

The following are the main types of image.

  • Pictures. These include photographs, drawings and cartoons.

  • Diagrams. These include maps and other representations of relationships between objects, such as family trees and Venn diagrams. Some writers classify maps as charts. We have chosen not to do this.

  • Graphs and charts. These are visual representations of numbers. Thus, they include pie charts, histogram
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