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3.3 Luminosities

The issue of whether QSO redshifts are of cosmological origin was unambiguously settled by the work illustrated in Figure 5 (particularly the two leftmost panels). When sensitive enough observations are made, the galaxies in which the quasars reside can be detected. The relatively faint emission from the surroundi
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3.2 QSO spectra

It only became apparent that these quasi-stellar objects were not stars when their spectra were examined. At first astronomers could not interpret their spectra because the spectral lines did not appear at appropriate wavelengths for atoms of any known chemical element. The spectrum shown in Figure 4 provided the
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3.1 AGNs

It is clear that the objects studied by Fath and Seyfert, such as those shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2, are bright nuclei at the centres
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References

National Audit Office (2001) Tackling obesity in England [online] Available from: www.nao.org.uk/publications/nao_reports/00-01/0001220.pdf (Accessed 20 April 2009).
Watkins, P. J.(2003) Diabetes and its Management, Oxford, Blackwell Publishing.
World Health Organization (1999) Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications
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13 Unit summary

  1. BSE is a TSE disease of cattle that was formally recognised in 1986. It developed to epidemic proportions in the UK, reaching a peak in 1992. Although BSE is now fading away in the UK, cases have eventually turned up in many other countries.

  2. Mainly through epidemiological studies, veterinary scientists quickly established (at least to their satisfaction) that BSE was caused by the inclusion in cattle feed of ruminant-derived MBM contaminated w
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

Text

Figures
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1.7.1 Unit summary

1. A coordinate system provides a systematic means of specifying the position of a particle. A system in one dimension involves choosing an origin and a positive direction in which values of the position coordinate increase. Values of the position coordinate are positive or negative numbers multiplied by an appropriate unit of length, usually the SI unit of length, the metre (m).

2. The movement of a particle along a line can be described graphically by plotting values of the particle's
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1.6.3 The acceleration due to gravity

In the absence of air resistance, an object falling freely under the influence of the Earth's gravity, close to the surface of the Earth, experiences an acceleration of about 9.81 m s−2 in the downward direction. The precise value of the magnitude is indicated by the symbol g and varies slightly from place to place due to variations in surface altitude, the effect of the Earth's rotation and variations in the internal composition of the Earth. Some typical values f
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7 Conclusion

Activity 15

Perhaps you are asking yourself why there are so many different imaging modalities. Is there not one that will do everything that is required? The answer, at the moment, is ‘No’. With most of the imaging techniques, we cons
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2.2.3 Couch

The couch or patient trolley must be radio-translucent (i.e. it allows through most of the X-rays). Nonetheless there is some interaction between the couch and the X-rays and this can be a cause of scattered radiation.


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1.2 Artificial selection

Selection acts on phenotypic characters whatever their origin, and can retain or eliminate the characters' genetic basis. Artificial selection is any selective breeding intentionally practiced by humans leading to the evolution of domesticated organisms. Artificial selection may oppose or amplify or be neutral in relation to natural selection. Most livestock, including dogs, cats, goats, pigs, cattle, sheep, guinea pigs, horses, geese and poultry and scores of crop plants were d
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5.5.2 Indris and sifakas

Both indris and sifakas are unusual amongst lemurs in that they are active largely by day. Leaves are their primary food. They have a specialised form of locomotion, best described as ‘vertical clinging and leaping’ and the leaps they can take, using their powerful legs, can be up to 10 m. DA describes the bounding movement of sifakas when they are compelled to come to ground. (If you go back to the previous video sequence that shows this strikingly white species – the so-called silky s
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2.1 The consequences of living in the trees

This unit contains a lot of detailed information about particular tree-dwelling mammals. You will need to take care not to get too absorbed in the fine details but to ensure that you take away the important overall messages. Those are, of course, listed as the learning outcomes at the beginning of the unit. Loo
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3 Tool use and culture in ape and human societies

Another surprising discovery first reported by Jane Goodall in 1960, was the routine use of tools by the Gombe chimpanzees for obtaining food. Since then, observations on other groups of chimpanzees have highlighted the diversity of tool-using techniques. The TV programme and LoM Chapter 10 provide fascinating examples of the techniques used; some are remarkably complex and ingenious.


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8.3 Shortage of minerals

You may be familiar with salt licks that are provided for domesticated cattle. In the wild, grass is also often low in minerals (e.g. it has almost no sodium and very little calcium), so grazers may have to go to extraordinary lengths to supplement their diet with additional minerals obtained from the most unlikely places. LoM gives some examples, but the most impressive activity takes place in the caves of Mount Elgon in Kenya [pp. 113–114]. You'll probably recall this spectacular footage
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5.3 The effect of environment on reproductive behaviour

Activity 5

Review your reading of Section 4.2 on the family life of marmots (or re
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1 Meeting the insect eaters

As you work through this unit you will come across boxes, like this one, which give you advice about the study skills that you will be developing as you progress through the unit. To avoid breaking up the flow of the text, they will usually appear at the start or end of the sections.

As well as the unit t
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2.2.2 Precision

Measuring the same sample should give the same result every time if the equipment is precise. In practice, the information displayed by a measuring device can depend on several factors (such as temperature and humidity) and can drift slightly over time. Nevertheless, during the time it takes to complete a measurement sequence, all measurements ought to remain within a specified, small margin of error, often marked on the equipment. We will see later on, in Author(s): The Open University

1.4 Decimal places

If you have less than one unit you should put a zero before the decimal point to make it easier for yourself and others to read the value (e.g. you should write 0.4 rather than just .4, as will be explained later in this unit). However, how many zeros should you put after the last whole number in the series? For instance, is 0.4 the same as 0.40?

The short answer is that on one level, it is. However, by writing 0.40 we are saying that there are four tenths and zero hundredths, an
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2 Geological time-scales – a brief review

Geological time can be divided into a number of Eons, Eras and Periods, with further subdivisions into sub-Periods or series and epochs. These are arranged chronologically, with the oldest at the bottom, younging upwards to form the stratigraphic column (Figure 2).

The stratigraphic column can be looked at in
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