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2.2 Vertical communication

Figure 6 shows the OSI view of adjacent layers. The interface between two layers in the same system is called a service access point (SAP). One of the features of a service access point is that it has an identifier, or an address, which allows each communication between adjacent layers to be uniquely identified. The processes that communicate across the interface are called entities. These are typically software routines, but may also be hardware components. The notation in Figu
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able:

  • read Social Science materials critically and effectively.


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3.1 Introduction

Precedent is the basis of the common law. The doctrine of binding precedent is known as the doctrine of stare decisis, which is Latin meaning ‘to stand by/adhere to decided cases’, i.e. to follow precedent. In other words, once a principle is decided it should be followed in future cases. The doctrine refers to the fact that, within the hierarchical structure of the English courts, the decision of a higher court will be binding on a lower court. In general terms, this means that wh
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When Ringling Bros. Retires Its Elephants, This is Where They Live
Amid scrutiny for the handling of their performing elephants, Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus announced in March of this year that they will be removing elephants from their shows by 2018. The retired elephants will be brought to the Ringling Bros. Center for Elephant Conservation in Polk City, Florida. To help ensure the conservation of the Asian elephant, the animals will continue to be bred and studied at the center, with assisted reproduction and research into the diseases that
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The Influence of Western Painting and Genre Painting on the Films of John Ford
William Howze
This dissertation demonstrates John Ford’s use of images from a wide range of sources in many of his films. In particular, it examines Ford’s use of images based on the conventions of American […]

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Sloan Fellows Community
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3.1 Visualisers and verbalisers

A major point about diagrams is that some people naturally relate well to them and use them frequently, while others tend to prefer textual material. The former are sometimes referred to as visualisers and the latter as verbalisers. There is nothing wrong with either of these tendencies, but in subjects like systems thinking, social science or technology, where text and diagrams support each other, it is important to be comfortable with both. In addition, it is helpful to rememb
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Sickle cell disease: a lethal advantage
Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder that occurs in 1 in every 375 African Americans. There is currently no cure for this life-shortening disease. These five video tracks will help you to understand exactly what sickle cell disease is and answer many of the questions surrounding it. They'll also explain its hereditary nature in people of African descent. This material forms part of The Open University course SK195 Human genetics and health issues.Author(s): The iTunes U team

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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Video discusses the electromagnetic spectrum.  It starts with the various wave lengths and where visible light is found.  Visible light is represented by only 1 inch on an electromagnetic scale of over 2,000 miles.

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Delivering custom Office experiences with Azure RemoteApp | The Garage Series for Office 365

On today's show, Jeremy is joined by Klaas Langhout from the Azure team to discuss the pros and cons of delivering Office desktop experiences via RemoteApp. They balance the user experiences of native apps versus remote desktop architectures. Then Klaas demonstrates how quickly an Azure RemoteApp environment running Office can be set up.

Stay up to date with the latest shows at office.com/mechanics

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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to c
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4.3 Business and enlightenment: Manchester 1789–99

Manchester's dynamic business environment, particularly that of the new cotton industry, presented many opportunities for enterprise, even to those with modest capital. By 1790 Owen had joined John Jones, probably another Welshman, making spinning machinery. The next logical move was into cotton spinning itself, and very quickly Owen had established a reputation as a manufacturer of fine yarn, selling as far afield as London and Scotland. When in 1792 one of the town's leading merchant capita
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CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [Conference Proceedings]
In the announcement of the sixth eCAADe Conference we stated that It is held at a time where CAAD is moving into practice very fast, with heavy influence on research and education. We stated that research is directed towards the early design phases, and that education is facing the problem of mass education. In that situation much benefit can be obtained from collaboration with practice. We decided to give the conference the title ?CAAD: Education - Research and Practice? to state the importanc
Author(s): Agger, Kristian and Lentz, Uffe (Eds.)

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5.5 Ring-tailed lemurs

LoM p. 239 describes the life and habits of the ring-tailed lemur, drawing attention to what are commonly called their 'stink-fights' - a further example of the importance of smell in lemur society. But here the habit is prevalent in a species that is active by day and can spend as much as 40 per cent of its waking time on the ground. In fact, these animals seem equally at home on the ground and in the trees. Over time, some populations in Madagascar have become more ground-based than others,
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5.2.1 Beyond the UK

We have focused on crime in one society, in one period – the late twentieth-century UK. But crime is also becoming increasingly globalised. This is not simply to say that crime occurs throughout the world, which it certainly does. It is to highlight ways through which crime is becoming organised across borders.

One example would be cross-border criminal gangs. The American-Italian Mafia is now in global competition with Eastern European and Russian Mafias who are in turn up against Ch
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Intro to Humanism: Part 1
Part 1: Defining Humanism, Part 1 of a 6 part series.
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8.3 Academic arguments

You have looked at some examples of everyday arguments, now look at a short example of an academic argument.

Activity 26

Read the argument below. Compare and contrast it to the previous examples of arguments you
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3.1 The role of observation

It was clear to Canadian psychologist Albert Bandura (1924– ) that not only is children's behaviour shaped by its consequences, but also that children learn by watching the behaviour of people around them. In contrast to behaviourism, Bandura's social learning theory emphasised the importance of children imitating the behaviours, emotions and attitudes of those they saw around them:

Learning would be exceedingly
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5.3.4 Leadership theory summary

This brief review of leadership theories has indicated that there are no simple answers to what it is that makes some leaders more effective than others, and no single best leadership style or approach. What matters is that the style adopted should fit with the expectations of those being led and be consistent with the task at hand (that is, it should not ignore the specific characteristics of the task itself).

There are no simple answers, which is perhaps why this continues to be the s
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Careers and employability
Careers and employability - UNSPECIFIED Keywords:UNSPECIFIED
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