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3.4 Decreasing by a percentage

Discount can be calculated in the same way as an increase by a percentage. For example, £8 with 15% discount means you actually pay

  £8 less (15% of £8)

  15% of 8 = × 8 =
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3.2 Converting to a percentage

Fractions and decimals can also be converted to percentages, by multiplying by 100%.

So, for example, 0.17, 0.3 and can be expressed as percentages as follows:

  0.17 × 100% = 17%;

<
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1.3.1 Try some yourself

Activity 3

A local supermarket sells a popular breakfast cereal in a ‘Large Pack’ and ‘New Extra Large Pack’. They are both being sold at ‘knock down’ prices. The large pack contains 450 g of cereal priced at
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1.1 Introduction

Ratios crop up often in official statistics. The government wants the teacher–pupil ratio in schools to be increased to one teacher to thirty pupils or less. The birth rate has fallen: the ratio of children to women of child bearing age has gone down. It used to be 2.4 to 1, and now it is 1.9 to 1. Predictions for the ratio of working adults to retired adults is disturbing. Predictions are, that by 2030 the ratio will be two working adults to every retired person, instead of three to one no
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1.2.3 Process

Mathematical processes are different from content in that they overarch the subject and are not thought of as hierarchical. A list of processes could contain:

  • problem-solving (including investigating);

  • mathematical modelling;

  • reasoning;

  • communicating;

  • making connections (including applying mathematics); and

  • using tools.

Each of the six processes listed here repre
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World in transition: Managing Resources
Do you take your access to water for granted? The Peruvian and Tanzanian communities featured in this album certainly don’t. This album examines how development agencies can empower communities to help themselves by introducing simple technologies, and facilitate the sharing of ideas through education. In the Andean mountains, scarce supplies of water and agricultural challenges give rise to conflict; but the changes engineered by development agencies can start to show a way out of poverty. Me
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Understanding the environment: Learning and communication
There is increasing recognition that the reductionist mindset that is currently dominating society, rooted in unlimited economic growth unperceptive to its social and environmental impact, cannot resolve the converging environmental, social and economic crises we now face. The primary aim of this free course, Understanding the environment: Learning and communication, is to encourage the shift away from reductionist and human centred thinking towards a holistic and ecological worldview.
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Introducing the environment: Ecology and ecosystems
What is ecology and why is it important to our understanding of the world around us? This free course, Introducing the environment: Ecology and ecosystems, looks at how we can study ecosystems to explore the effect that humans are having on the environment. First published on Fri, 18 Mar 2016 as Author(s): Creator not set

Climate change
Climate change is a key issue on today's social and political agenda. This free course explores the basic science that underpins climate change and global warming. First published on Tue, 30 Oct 2018 as Climate change. To find out more visit The Open University's Author(s): Creator not set

Effects of pollutants on the aquatic environment
Effects of pollutants on the aquatic environment is a free course. It begins with an introduction to water and goes on to briefly outline the major sources of water pollution (these being sewage works, manufacturing and industrial plants, the farming and animal husbandry sectors, landfill sites and urban surface water run-off). It considers the major water pollutants and describes the effects they have on water. Author(s): Creator not set

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2.6.2 The role of modelling studies

State-of-the-art models are designed to simulate the workings of the climate system (in so far as this is currently understood), and include the 'internal' interactions that generate short-term natural variability in the real world. They provide modellers with a means of carrying out 'virtual' experiments on the climate system. In the present context, an important aim of these experiments is to identify the 'signal' of a human influence on climate, so studies typically involve 'feeding' into
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2.1 Preamble

Here are some quotes from the 'Summary for Policymakers' (SPM) included in the report from the scientific working group in the IPCC TAR (IPCC, 2001a):

  • The Earth's climate system has demonstrably changed on both global and regional scales since the pre-industrial era, with some of these changes attributable to human activities.

  • Globally, it is very likely that the 1990s was the warmest decade and 1998 the warmest year in the instrumental
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1.1 Framing nature using language tools

By framing, I mean the structures and pre-assumptions that we consciously or unconsciously apply to a situation in order to make sense of it. So are there any differences between the way in which we frame nature in caring for environment and the way in which we frame it to provide accountability? What significance might this have, and what tools might be used to bridge the responsibilities of caring and accountability?

Caring for environment makes manifest the informal aspects of
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you t
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1.4.3 It's all down to connections

For Iris Marion Young, the responsibility of those in North America and Europe towards distant others does indeed rest with their connections to injustices elsewhere, but it would be a mistake to stretch this line of reasoning too far. Although these connections, whether as a consumer, boardroom executive or shop manager, can establish a line of responsibility, as was claimed in Section 3.1, for Young this is only the starting point and not the end point of our involvement. We do not have to
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1.2.8 In praise of cheap offshore labour? continued

There are two points which are central to this line of thinking. One, according to Wolf (2004), is that the whole process, as odd as it may sound, is about mutual exploitation. Outside firms do indeed exploit the poor by taking advantage of the profitable opportunities that a pool of cheap labour represents. But Indonesian or Chinese workers, for instance, could be said to exploit the incoming firms by extracting higher pay from them and taking advantage of opportunities that previousl
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Keep on learning

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Conclusion

  • We are biologically predisposed to provide for our offspring and may try to ensure that this provision continues after our death. However, our interactions with other members of society are wide-ranging and many people leave legacies to benefit the wider community.

  • All species alter their environment to some extent because they do not live in isolation from one another. The study of the interactions between plants, animals and their environmen
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5.3 Problems with international rights

The international human rights discourse claims that the value of its conception of rights lies in it being universal, empowering and human-centred. The idea of universality asserts the relevance of human rights to anyone, anywhere. Empowerment is the concept of human rights as a defence against inequality and the domination of the powerful over the weak. The human-centred feature of international rights seeks to provide a perspective on global questions, ‘putting the value of human dignity
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