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2.1 New perspectives

The purpose of studying religion is to make the strange familiar, and the familiar strange.

Exercise

We would encourage
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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2.1 An introduction to khyal singing

I now want to move on to explore the first of two case studies of non-Western music-traditions: North Indian art music, also known as Hindustani music. (There are two major art music traditions in South Asia; the other is known as South Indian or Carnatic.) In this section I will take you through a performance of music from this tradition and consider some of the questions posed by Author(s): The Open University

1.2 Different perspectives on the creation of music

If a simple division into composition and improvisation is not going to be adequate, particularly when considering music beyond the Western art tradition, then what can we usefully say about the different ways in which music is created? A starting point might be to remind ourselves of the similarities between composition and improvisation. Both the improviser and the composer create music. Both of them, in doing so, draw on a range of skills and experience: their musical training and k
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Partnerships: working across boundaries
How much more can you achieve by working with others rather than working alone? How should you manage relationships across various physical and cultural divides? This album explores how the formation of a variety of partnerships, spanning public, private and voluntary sectors, has radically regenerated the City of Stoke-on-Trent in the UK, bringing major improvements for the city’s physical and social environments. A second case study features Medecins Sans Frontieres (Doctors without Borders)
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Social marketing
Have you ever wondered how marketing techniques have been used to promote positive social change? In a series of lively interviews, Professor Gerard Hastings of the Institute of Social Marketing, faces questions from members of ISM-Open (the Institute of Social Marketing at The Open University Business School) on issues such as the ethics of social marketing, branding and advertising, and the morality of shocking or scaring people into changing their behaviour for the better. This material fo
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Management: Perspectives and Practice
HR, Marketing, Finance, Operations and Project Management are all key functions of an organisation. These short audio perspectives give an insight into the roles in these areas and how they interact with the rest of the organisation, with examples of common problems, challenges and difficulties that are faced. This material forms part of The Open University course B716 MBA stage 1: Management: Perspectives and Practice.Author(s): The OpenLearn team

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Introduction

In very broad terms, ‘culture’ refers to the prevailing norms and values which guide the way people behave in a society or in an organisation. Culture at the level of an organisation is referred to as organisational culture, and culture at the level of a society is referred to as national culture.

Organisational culture refers to an organisation's own values, beliefs and learned ways of doing business. This is reflected in its structure and in the people who work in the organisation
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Introduction

‘Environment’ is one of the more popular words in the management lexicon, most generally understood to be referring to ‘something outside’. But common usage today often interprets the Environment (with or without the capital ‘E’) as referring to the planetary ecosystem. On that basis the Environment includes such things as global warming, the state of the ozone layer, deforestation and the means of energy generation. Organisations need to coexist with their environment, responding
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Understanding management: I'm managing thank you!
This free course, Understanding management: I'm managing thank you! provides you with a set of ideas for developing your approach to managing your own work what we might call self-management. In order to do this, we will examine some of the key processes of management decision making, such as allocating time, staff, physical and financial resources: prioritising and problem solving and monitoring performance.Author(s): Creator not set

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Managing the software enterprise: The organisational and business context
This free course, Managing the software enterprise: The organisational and business context, relates software to the organisation that it supports, drawing on basic ideas from organisational theory and management. We see how organisational practices become embodied in IT systems, practices that had previously been part of peoples tacit expertise become externalised and codified in procedures and software. The software and its relationship to the organisation are constantly changing as part of a
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Introduction

Awareness of our own and others’ interpersonal skills can help us enormously in dealing with the work tasks we are responsible for, both in terms of management and also many other aspects of working and non-working life.

In this free course, The importance of interpersonal skills, you will consider the fundamentals of good communication. You will consider how the content, language and medium of the message you are communicating, as well as the relationship you have with the per
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Management: perspective and practice
What does it mean to be a manager? Being a manager is a complex and challenging activity. This free course, Management: perspective and practice, introduces you to the role of the manager. In this OpenLearn course you’ll look at an array of activities including leadership, human resources, finance, project management, change management, operations management and stakeholder management. Author(s): Creator not set

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Activity 2: Differences between national culture and organisational culture

Allow 30 minutes for this activity.

Activity 1 introduced you to national and organisational culture by helping you to develop suitable definitions. This activity will help you to understand more about culture. It looks at differences between national culture and organisational culture. It wi
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1.2.1 Target dates

The overall plan will indicate the start dates for each group of activities, or each task. A useful way of focusing activities on achieving outcomes is to provide clear dates for completion of stages and of final outcomes. If there are a number of different types of team, these may start and finish tasks at different times. Where the work of one team depends on another having completed in time, there are important issues to consider. Although a good control system will provide information abo
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2.8.1 A case study

Figure 18 shows part of a critical path for converting surplus retail space into a warehouse. Each task is represented by an arrow; the length of an arrow does not relate to the duration of the task. The junctions (called nodes) where arrows meet would normally be num
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2.1.2 How a force-field diagram can help

  1. The diagram is a useful expositional or presentational device. When you are presenting an analysis or proposal, the diagram will enable you to describe (and distinguish between) the reasons for a change. It will enable you to do the same for the reasons why a change may be resisted.

  2. The diagram will be an explicit prompt for exploring the restraining forces. The more a manager finds out about these, and the earlier, the better placed the manag
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1.1.3 The intercept

When a line cuts an axis, the line is said ‘to intercept the axis at’ [the particular point]. In this example, the line cuts the vertical (y) axis at £10, so ‘the line intercepts the y axis at £10’. It can also be said that ‘the intercept with the y axis is £10’.


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2.3 Capital markets

In so far as better corporate governance has the objective of enhancing shareholder control, it should follow that companies with better corporate governance will attract investors and will reduce their cost of capital. A global investor opinion survey carried out by McKinsey & Company (2002) gives some evidence that good governance is linked to investment decisions. The survey found that:

  • investors state that they still put corporate governance on a p
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2.2 Recent governance failures

As we have discussed before, the creation of corporate regulation is often linked to perceived failures of corporations and their management to behave in the way society expect them to. Corporate governance is not an exception to this trend, and, as with accounting, different countries may well experience difficulties at different times. For example, the development of British codes of best practice, which began with the Cadbury Committee, can be related to governance scandals such as Polly P
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