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2.1 Why study ecology?

These days, bird watching is a popular leisure activity and in the past so were collecting insects, wild flowers and birds’ eggs (although such activities are not now recommended – indeed, they are often illegal – because of the potential damage they cause to flora and fauna). Some amateurs are or were truly experts in their fields. In fact, much of the original identification of the British flora and fauna was done by amateur naturalists. Many a Victorian vicar or other self-taught nat
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1.3.2 Texture of igneous rocks

What texture might we expect an igneous rock to have? An igneous rock will contain crystals that grew as the magma cooled. Each crystal will have started to grow unhindered by neighbouring crystals, so an igneous rock therefore has a crystalline texture in which the crystals are randomly oriented.

To picture this, consider magma at an initial temperature of perhaps 1000 °C, as it slowly cools underground (see Figure 3, path (a) to (d)). Initially the magma is completely molten (Figure
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3.1.5 (E) Historical development of scientific knowledge

Pupils should be taught some of the historical background to the development of scientific knowledge.


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2.3 What is a ‘business’?

The vast majority of companies are, indeed, set up and run with ‘commercial objects’ – in other words, they are business enterprises, or ‘undertakings’, set up to trade and make a profit. It is principally in the context of the company as a form of business organisation (or ‘business medium’) that we will be studying it. So, before we start to look in detail at what companies are, it is a good idea to have a grasp of what companies do, which will lead us on to consider why they
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2.2 What is a ‘company’?

In Part A, we will start by examining some of the basic concepts which will underpin your understanding of the course. We will begin by examining what you think a company is (you do not need to have previous legal knowledge for this).

Activity 1: What does ‘company’ mean?


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2.1 Key themes and learning outcomes

The key themes of Part A are:

  • company;

  • business;

  • capital.

After studying Part A, you should be able to:

  • describe in general terms what a business is;

  • demonstrate an appreciation of the concept of capital.

 

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1.3 Wider aspects of business and company law

So far, we have touched on just a few of the many aspects of the law which relates to companies and other businesses. It will be useful at this point to consider how these areas fit into some wider issues raised by the study of law in general. For example:

  • The law relating to businesses such as companies and partnerships regulates important areas of daily life, and allows you to see that there is a connection between the law and the way in which people
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • Part A:

  • describe in general terms what a business is

  • demonstrate an appreciation of the concept of capital.

  • Part B:

  • identify the main types of business medium

  • demonstrate an understanding of the key characteristics of businesses run as sole traders

  • determine what are the assets and liabilities of a business using numeracy skil
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Introduction

In this course, we will consider the nature of businesses and the principal forms of business organisation. The themes covered in Part A are company, business and capital; and in Part B, business mediums, sole traders, partnerships or firms, and assets and liabilities.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of Level 1 study in Author(s): The Open University

Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying Law. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner. 


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4.2 Effect of the ECHR on English law prior to the Human Rights Act 1998

The Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA) received the Royal Assent on 9 November 1998, and the main provisions were brought into effect on 2 October 2000. However, the UK had by then been a signatory to and had ratified the ECHR for nearly fifty years. What was the effect, if any, of the Convention on UK domestic law? We have already noted the supremacy of Parliament as the main law-making body in the UK. Under English law international treaties do not become part of domestic law unless and until some
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4.1 An overview of the UK perspective

You have looked at the international scene regarding human rights but what of the position in England? You may be wondering: ‘If the common law developed over hundreds of years in this country surely the courts must at some stage have been called upon to consider the issue of human rights?’. As you might expect, the answer to this question is in the affirmative.

However, over the centuries the lack of legal instruments on human rights was itself an inhibition on the development of h
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3.8 Summary of Part B

In Part B you learned more about the ECHR and the procedures of the ECtHR and how protocols have been used to ensure that the ECHR remains a living instrument. Part B also explored the new challenges created by the rapid expansion of HCPs at the end of the last century and the proposals for reform of the ECtHR.


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3.6 The terms of the European Convention on Human Rights

In 1952 the HCPs agreed that the European Convention on Human Rights should be extended to cover additional rights and freedoms. At the time of drafting the original treaty there were heated debates about whether rights relating to property, education and democratic participation were fundamental human rights. As a compromise these were omitted from the original treaty. Their later inclusion was achieved by an instrument known as a protocol, which, although much shorter than the original ECHR
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3.2 What is the European Convention on Human Rights?

In the aftermath of the Second World War there were public disclosures of huge numbers of cases of brutal, inhuman and tyrannical treatment of people, frequently within the civilian populations of occupied countries. Many serious concerns arose about the way in which millions of people had been mistreated at the instigation of or with the connivance or concurrence of government. There was almost universal disgust and condemnation at the disclosures made, together with a general recognition th
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3.1 Part B overview

The European Convention on Human Rights was introduced in course W100_4 Europe and the law, and through your previous studies you have probably already considered cases (such as that of Diane Pretty) where articles of the European Convention on Human Rights were under debate. Here you will look at its legal implications in more detail. You will consider how the European Convention on Human Rights came into being, why it was considered necessary to create such an instrument, what are it
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2.4 Summary of Part A

Part A explored the development of humanitarian and human rights law. The development of new democracies with written constitutions laid the framework for the general recognition of rights such as freedom of speech. General principles emerged:

  • certain rights exist because a human being is entitled to ‘humanity’;

  • those rights cannot be denied or taken away;

  • recognition of the rule of law.


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2.2 Slavery reform

Some of the first international concerns over human rights, as they would now be recognised, were expressed about slavery at the end of the eighteenth century. Somerset's case in 1772 challenged the acceptance of slavery in the UK. This case is regarded as a turning point, as statutory abolition followed in the UK. Out of this changing social, political and legal attitude towards slavery grew a movement which sought to prohibit slavery internationally. It was not possible to secure the freedo
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2.1 Treaties, conventions and constitutions

International human rights are part of a much wider area, public international law, which in broad terms encompasses law relating to the legal rights, duties and powers of one nation state in relation to its dealings with other nation states. These rights, duties and powers are set out in international treaties or conventions. Such treaties and conventions may be global in their application or restricted to certain regions of the world. Reference to a work on international human rights treati
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1 Course overview

This course will look at the concept of rights in their broadest sense:

  • a freedom to do or be protected from something;

  • a claim to do or enjoy something;

  • a power to do something which affects others and not to be challenged over that use of power.

This concept of rights defines the position of an individual and does not consider collective or majority rights. As you may already know, the subject of rights,
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