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3.2.4 Functional and team roles

When individuals are being selected for membership of a team, the choice is usually made on the basis of task-related issues, such as their prior skills, knowledge, and experience. However, team effectiveness is equally dependent on the personal qualities and attributes of individual team members. It is just as important to select for these as well.

When we work with other people in a group or team we each bring two types of role to that relationship. The first, and more obvious, is our
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6.5 Market experience

It is some 20 years since the Topper project was conceived by Peter Bean, Technical Director of Rolinx and Ian Proctor, the designer of the original GRP boat. Sales initially were excellent, especially to sailing schools and clubs where there was much demand for a small, light and very safe sailing boat for children. But after that, the market became saturated, sales were heavily dependant on individuals and families, so decreased despite attempts to export the boat to the USA and Israel, for
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6.4 Case history: the Topper boat

Replacement of one polymeric material by another may be undertaken entirely for manufacturing reasons, and this is what happened in the redesign of the Topper dinghy for thermoplastic polymer. The dinghy was originally designed for hand lay-up GRP in 1969 by Ian Proctor, a well known designer of small boats and yachts (Figure 61
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5.5.1 Non-uniform mixtures

Moulded rubbers and plastics are compounds of a polymer matrix and a variety of additives. The mixing history of the material before and during the moulding process can have a critical influence upon the final product properties. If mixing is done badly then the microstructure of the moulding can be non-uniform. Lack of uniformity can cause variations of strength and other physical properties within the moulding. The degree of dispersion or distribution of relatively minor quantities of addit
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4.1 Understanding the polymerization process

Converting monomer to long chain polymer is the final step in the polymer manufacturing sequence. Polymerization is usually highly favourable in thermodynamic terms, mainly on energetic grounds because ordering molecules into linked chains is a process where the entropy is decreased. Heat is always given out during polymerization owing to the very favourable energetics of reaction, a point you may have noticed if you have ever made GRP parts for your car, for example!

Advances in cataly
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2.6 Molecular mass distribution

Figure 28

2.5.4 Melting and structure

For those polymers which can crystallise, one would expect some relation between chain rotation and melting. Since all crystallisation demands that chains form an ordered conformation (e.g. the PE planar zig-zag) before they can pack together, the chance of this happening should be related to the ease of twisting into the required conformation. That there is a rough correlation between Tg and Tm can be judged from Author(s): The Open University

Stage 2: The situation analysed

The first step is to develop a picture (called in soft systems terminology a rich picture) that encapsulates all the elements that people think are involved in the problem. Once the rich picture has been drawn, the analyst will attempt to extract ‘issues’ and key tasks.

Issues are areas of contention within the problem situation. Key tasks are the essential jobs that must be undertaken within the problem situation.

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1.5 Increasing complication, complexity and risk: the underlying relationship

Figure 3 showed five commonly encountered problems of effecting different types of change. These are notionally located on a spectrum of change that ranges from no change at all, to complete revolution. The relationship suggested on the figure is that as the degree of change – represented
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2.3 Attenuation

Activity 2

At approximately what wavelength is the attenuation of optical fibre lowest? What, approximately, is the attenuation at that wavelength? What other wavelengths are used and why?


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3.2 Making sense of the metaphor

The metaphor of the juggler keeping the four balls in the air is a powerful way for me to think about what I do when I try to be effective in my practice. It matches with my experience: it takes concentration and skill to do it well. But metaphors conceal features of experience, as well as calling them to attention. The juggler metaphor conceals that the four elements of effective practice often seem to be related. I cannot juggle them as if they were independent of each other. I can imagine
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5.12 Interests

There is quite a lot to be said about the play, but in this unit I need to be selective. In the conversations that take place, one of the things that happens is that all sorts of interests unfold. There is a catalogue of benefits that could each potentially accrue to a long list of individuals and groups. We have the government that could gain benefits through ownership which would allow it to develop the device, understand threats, prevent development, protect the indigenous industry and ret
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5.6 Identification

We end Act 1 with a clear understanding that it is actually too late for Ned to pull out, even if he wanted to: the weapon has been designed. If he were concerned about the military technology, he should really have worried about that before he took on the job. But he does not, at the end of Act 1, want to pull out. He clearly wants to see the project through. Materialising this idea is what he lives for, and he says this is at the cutting edge, this is where technology is. These ideas are go
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5.5 Rhetorical devices

I talked a bit about Ned's motivations, but I am not quite sure about what he is trying to do to be persuasive. He has this interest in aesthetics, but in giving a detailed explanation of a military technology he is working on, he, from time to time, uses an analogy. One analogy he uses is the ‘flocking of starlings’, which illustrates rather the principle of operation of the technology and suggests that it is a kind of an existence proof. It implies this technology might actually work. B
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3.5 The story so far

I have been discussing ethics as related to labelling things as ‘good’ and ‘bad’ or using more parochial words as substitutes. Different kinds of things could be said to be ‘good’ or ‘bad’, including means, ends, relationships, feelings, appearances, radiation levels and so on. The big ethical problem is how to combine this variety of things to reach a judgement, especially when combining them, it is possible that we end up with ambiguity or contradictions. I have explored the
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3.4 Negotiation and adaptation

I suggested that one way out of our contradictions is to begin to negotiate. This implies that negotiation and what you do during negotiation is a part of the business of ethics. Ethical texts normally focus on contradictions, but, as I also mentioned above, actually people do agree a lot of the time, so life is not all contradictions.

Contradictions, however, do pose a problem, and I used the play Antigone to illustrate that conflict can arise. In the case of Antigone, it
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2.4 Relationships and conduct

Socratic dialogues tend to involve Socrates and just one significant interlocutor at a time. In practice, we have networks of relationships, all of which we value in different ways and which are sustained by conversations that extend over different and long sequences of encounters. Crucially, the actions we take and the conversations we have change those relationships and the value we attribute to them. Therefore, ‘relationships’ constitute yet another thing that we need to look at, somet
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • discuss what ethics is and what constitutes an ethical issue;

  • identify and discuss ethical issues that arise in the media, in routine conversations and, in particular, in your own everyday professional practice;

  • discuss the role of emotions in ethical deliberations;

  • discuss how negotiation might resolve apparent ethical differences;

  • identify and discuss the ethical issues p
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6.10 Action plans

  • 22. Does the action plan make the proposal concrete in terms of realistic time scales and budgets and identification of relevant milestones?

A reasonably detailed action plan has four distinct functions in your proposal:


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