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6.1 Introduction

Structural formulae of, for example, hexan-1-ol (Structure 6.1) and PF5 (Structure 5.13) merely tell us the immediate neighbours of any particular atom. They are two-dimensional drawings, which ignore the three-dimensional shapes of the molecules. But in studying the structures obtained by X-ray crystallography in Section 1
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5.1 Molecular reactivity is concentrated at key sites

Reactivity is not spread evenly over a molecule; it tends to be concentrated at particular sites. The consequences of this idea are apparent in the chemistry of many elements. However, in organic chemistry, the idea has proved so valuable that it receives specific recognition through the concept of the functional group. Structure 6.1 shows the abbreviated structural formula of hexan-1-ol, an alcohol.


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5 The Devonian Period

Before going any further, click on 'View document' below and read pages 76-77 from Douglas Palmer's Atlas of the Prehistoric World. Do not worry too much about all the different names of fish groups in this, the 'Age of Fishes'.

View document

Environmental change is known to have a significant impact on the evolution of life. For ex
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2.14 Samples and populations

It is no accident that the examples used to illustrate the statistics for repeated measurements of individual quantities were drawn from chemistry and physics. Experiments involving repeated measurements of some quantity are typical of the physical sciences. There are, however, many other types of scientific work in which a typical procedure is to collect data by measuring or counting the members of a sub-set of things which form part of a larger group, and
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4.3 Hierarchies within groups

Within multimale-multifemale groups of the type portrayed in Figure 7f, complex social relationships exist. These animals are 'forced together' to defend resources and to avoid predation, but competition for food and mates is substantially greater in large groups. This internal competition has led to males or females o
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • identify the charactistics of primates and explain the main differences between the two suborders, prosimians and anthropoids

  • describe the detection of colour and estimation of distance in primates and explain the advantages of stereoscopic trichromatic vision

  • discuss the various types of communication seen in anthropoids and explain how playback experiments contribute to understanding vocal communi
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5.5 Ring-tailed lemurs

LoM p. 239 describes the life and habits of the ring-tailed lemur, drawing attention to what are commonly called their 'stink-fights' - a further example of the importance of smell in lemur society. But here the habit is prevalent in a species that is active by day and can spend as much as 40 per cent of its waking time on the ground. In fact, these animals seem equally at home on the ground and in the trees. Over time, some populations in Madagascar have become more ground-based than others,
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5.1 Monogamy and polygamy

You've seen plenty of evidence that reproduction in rodents - more precisely what I've called their reproductive strategies - are versatile and varied. You'll appreciate that 'versatile and varied' describes the range of sexual habits seen in the rodents as a group, not the behaviour within a single species. As DA says, some are monogamous, which means that individuals mate exclusively with one partner, over at least a single breeding cycle or season. The marmots are an example of a group tha
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5.3 The expert patient

Shifting notions of expertise also feature in the ESRC report. While the medical establishment lined up to proclaim the safety of the MMR vaccine, the anti-MMR voices in the media were mainly provided by parents of autistic children. The unquestionable sincerity of these voices conferred upon them a high level of authority compared with the unemotional scientific evidence given by medical experts.

The continuum between lay expertise and scientific expertise is becoming increasingly blur
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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3.6.4 Representing exponential relationships using graphs

What do exponential increase and decrease look like when plotted as a graph? Although exponentials describe anything that continually doubles or halves, the specific assumption of 'exponential increase' and 'exponential decay' are that these happen during a constant time interval. If the time taken for doubling or halving remains constant, then an exponential increase looks like the thick blue line in Author(s): The Open University

3.6.2 Exponential increase: bacteria

Bacteria are single-celled organisms. Many different types of bacteria exist and they populate almost every environment on earth, from deep oceans to soil to human intestines. Several bacteria are beneficial to us: for instance, our gut bacteria can help to break down foodstuffs that we would otherwise find difficult to digest. However, some bacteria produce harmful toxins and if they grow in an uncontrolled way in our bodies this can have serious health consequences.

If a bacterium is
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1.4 Decimal places

If you have less than one unit you should put a zero before the decimal point to make it easier for yourself and others to read the value (e.g. you should write 0.4 rather than just .4, as will be explained later in this course). However, how many zeros should you put after the last whole number in the series? For instance, is 0.4 the same as 0.40?

The short answer is that on one level, it is. However, by writing 0.40 we are saying that there are four tenths and zero hundredths,
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3.8 Moon40: Apollo 14 station H

The panorama was collected by Edgar Dean at station H. Alan Shepard is to the left of the lander aiming the TV camera at the MESA. (QuickTime, 500KB, note: this may take some time to download depending on your connection speed)

3.2 Moon34: Apollo 11 station 3

This panorama was collected by Neil Armstrong from a spot north east of the landing module at the Sea of Tranquility. (QuickTime, 500KB, note: this may take some time to download depending on your connection speed)

3.1 Comments and explanations

Read the following comments and explanations before answering the questions in Section 3.2.

  • As is the convention for satellites, the Moon's rotation period is defined in the Planetary facts table relative to the planet that it orbits rather than relative to the universe as a whole. This is a different convention from the
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Introduction

This course deals with the Moon, the only planetary body that everyone is familiar with seeing in the sky. You will learn about the nearest planetary body to Earth, the long record of cratering on its surface, and about the ancient eruptions that flooded many low-lying areas. If possible, it would be helpful to get a look at the Moon's surface before studying this course (even if you have no optical aid available), but don't worry if you are unable to do this.

This OpenLearn course prov
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6.4 Chemical equations and chemical reactions

The previous section shows how different elements can either exist on their own or combine with other elements to make compounds. This section builds on these ideas by looking at chemical reactions in more detail. It also shows how chemical shorthand can be extended to describing chemical reactions.

First, consider some of the molecules described earlier: water, methane, carbon dioxide and ammonia.

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3 What are compounds?

Activity 1: Elements and compounds

0 hours 10 minutes

Click on the video clip to watch Elements and Compounds, which focuses on water and its constituent elements.

Cl
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Faraday and Maxwell

Michael Faraday (1791-1867)

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