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4 OpenMark quiz

You might like to make some notes on the course for your own use later. Here is an example of a student's notes.

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2.1 Treaties, conventions and constitutions

International human rights are part of a much wider area, public international law, which in broad terms encompasses law relating to the legal rights, duties and powers of one nation state in relation to its dealings with other nation states. These rights, duties and powers are set out in international treaties or conventions. Such treaties and conventions may be global in their application or restricted to certain regions of the world. Reference to a work on international human rights treati
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1 Course overview

This course will look at the concept of rights in their broadest sense:

  • a freedom to do or be protected from something;

  • a claim to do or enjoy something;

  • a power to do something which affects others and not to be challenged over that use of power.

This concept of rights defines the position of an individual and does not consider collective or majority rights. As you may already know, the subject of rights,
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand the historical growth of the idea of human rights

  • demonstrate an awareness of the international context of human rights

  • demonstrate an awareness of the position of human rights in the UK prior to 1998

  • understand the importance of the Human Rights Act 1998

  • analyse and evaluate concepts and ideas.


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Introduction

This course considers the growth of human rights and humanitarian law before looking at the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) in detail. It will also look at the position of human rights in the UK and the effect of the Human Rights Act 1998.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of Level 1 study in Law
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Acknowledgements

The following material is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this course:

Co
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References

Hartley, T.C. (1998) The Foundations of European Community Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 11–13.
Tempest, M. (2004) ‘EU leaders sign constitution’, Guardian, 29 October.
Wright, G. and Jeffrey, S. (2004) ‘Q&A: the European constitution’, Guardian, 26 March.

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7.2 An EU constitution: moving the debate on

In the next activity you will be able to build upon the previous one and observe the way in which the debate on the new EU constitution has progressed and moved to another level on its way to ratification.

Activity 7 A snapshot from the EU constitutional debate (2)

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7.1 Towards a constitution

The European treaties establishing the European Union:

  • create an institutional structure for decision making, and

  • set out the freedoms of the individuals and the limits of the decision-making powers over the citizens.

The treaty establishing a constitution for Europe was signed by the member states in October 2004. However, at the time of writing (2005), the process of ratification is in abeyance following the rejection o
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6.5 The principle of subsidiarity

This is defined in Article 5(1) EC and 5(2) EC. It requires decision-making bodies with responsibility for larger areas to perform only those functions that decision-making bodies with responsibility for smaller areas cannot fulfil themselves. For instance, the Treaty requires the Community to take action ‘only if and in so far as the objectives of the proposed action cannot be sufficiently achieved by the Member States …’ and can ‘by reason of the scale or effects of the proposed act
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5.4 Summary of Part D

Table 3 summarises the main aspects of Part D.

Table 3 Types of law and their effects

<
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5.3.3 Decisions

A decision is an individual act emanating from an EU institution and addressing particular individuals, firms or EU member states. It is a legal tool designed to allow the Community institutions to order that a measure be taken in an individual case. The decision therefore, unlike the regulation or directive, is of individual application, and is binding only upon the persons to whom it is addressed.


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5.3.2 Directives

A directive is a Community act which ‘shall be binding, as to the result to be achieved, upon each Member State to which it is addressed, but shall leave to the national authorities the choice of form and methods’. A directive therefore has to be implemented by each EU member state through its own domestic legislative process. After the enactment of a directive, the EU member states will generally be given a period of time within which to bring their domestic law in line with the objectiv
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5.3 EU secondary legislation

Law made by the EU institutions in exercising the powers conferred on them by the treaties is referred to as secondary legislation. This legislation includes:

  • regulations

  • directives

  • decisions

  • recommendations

  • opinions.

Another EU institution often required to contribute to the EU law-making process is the European Court of Justice. This has two main functions:

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4.1 Overview

The institutions of the EU work towards objectives related to the three pillars and the creation of a body of Community law that applies

  • uniformly

  • in all member states.

The institutions having legal rule-making powers include the European Council, the Council of the European Union, the European Parliament and the European Commission. Finally, there is the European Court of Justice (ECJ), which has the power to settle lega
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Modelling and estimation
This free course is concerned with modelling and estimation and looks in particular at the binomial distribution. Section 1 starts by defining probability, introduces relevant notation and briefly discusses basic properties of probabilities. The section concludes by considering some of the general features of and ideas about modelling discrete random variables. Section 2 looks at one particular probability model for discrete data, the binomial distribution. Section 3 investigates how data can be
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3.20 Multiplication rules

The rules for multiplying positive and negative numbers can be illustrated by the table below.

Multiplying a positive number by a positive number gives a positive answer.

Multiplying a negative number by a positive number gives a negative answer.

Multi
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3.17 Subtraction of negative numbers

Next consider subtraction of a negative number. In terms of Thomas’s piggy bank, subtracting a negative number is the same as taking away one of his IOUs. If his mother says ‘you have been a good boy today so I’ll take away that IOU for £3’ this is equivalent to him being given £3.

So, − (3) = 3. Does this correspond with the number line interpretation of subtracting a negative number?

Consider the evaluation of 8 − 3. Continue to think o
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Try some yourself

Activity 56

Evaluate each of the following and give an example from everyday life to illustrate the sum (e.g. Thomas's piggy bank).

  • (a) 4 − 6

  • (b
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3.13 More division with fractions

How about other fractions? What is 6 ÷ ? This means how many Author(s): The Open University

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Type of lawEffect