4.4 Stationary states and tunnelling in one dimension
We will now use the stationarystate approach to analyse the tunnelling of particles of energy E_{0} through a finite square barrier of width L and height V_{0} when E_{0} < V_{0} (see Figure 21).
One of the most surprising aspects of quantum physics is the ability of particles to pass through regions that they are classically forbidden from entering. This is the phenomenon of quantummechanical tunnelling that was mentioned in SessionÂ 1.
In Session 4 we first demonstrate the phenomenon of tunnelling with the ai
3.6 Scattering in three dimensions
Sophisticated methods have been developed to analyse scattering in threedimensions. The complexity of these methods makes them unsuitable for inclusion in this unit but it is appropriate to say something about the basic quantities involved.
In three dimensions, we are obliged to think in terms of scattering at a given angle, rather than in terms of onedimensional reflection or transmission. We distinguish between the incident particles (some of which may be unaffected by the target) a
3.5 Scattering from finite square wells and barriers
The procedure used to analyse scattering from a finite square step can also be applied to scattering from finite square wells or barriers, or indeed to any combination of finite square steps, wells and barriers. The general procedure is as follows:

Divide the xaxis into the minimum possible number of regions of constant potential energy.

Write down the general solution of the relevant timeindependent SchrÃ¶dinger equation in
The expressions we have derived for reflection and transmission coefficients were based on the assumption that the intensity of a beam is the product of the speed of its particles and their linear number density. This assumption seems very natural from the viewpoint of classical physics, but we should always be wary about carrying over classical ideas into quantum physics. In this section we shall establish a general quantummechanical formula for the beam intensity. The formula will be consi
3.3 Scattering from a finite square step
The kind of onedimensional scattering target we shall be concerned with in this section is called a finite square step. It can be represented by the potential energy function
Session 2 discusses the scattering of a particle using wave packets. We shall restrict attention to one dimension and suppose that the incident particle is initially free, described by a wave packet of the form
This is a superposition of de Broglie waves, with the function
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4.4 Other Wenlock Limestone fossils
Among the other fossils common in the Wenlock Limestone are brachiopods (Figure 12a and b), gastropods (Figure 12c) and bryozoans (Figure 12d). You may need to reread Section 1.3 to remind yourself about various aspects of these groups.
Figure 13 (the unit image) is a reconstruction of a typical scene from a Wenlock Limestone environment. See
As we've seen, the Cambrian explosion left the seas teeming with a huge variety of animals. In the following activity you will study some of the marine life at one particular time in the Palaeozoic Era â€“ the middle part of the Silurian Period, 430Â Ma ago. You'll look in detail at some fossils which come from a deposit in the UK called the Wenlock Limestone, famous for its many beautiful fossils. The Wenlock Limestone crops out mainly around Birmingham and the borders of Wales.
Figure
Whatever age they are, men, women and children can all do something to try to prevent future cardiovascular diseases in themselves or their families by eating a balanced diet (see Section 4.6), taking more exercise and modifying their lifestyles to reduce any other known risk factors. If cardiovascular diseases are preexisti
2.10.1 Mean and standard deviation for repeated measurements
In everyday terms, everybody is familiar with the word â€˜averageâ€™, but in science and statistics there are actually several different kinds of average used for different purposes. In the kind of situation exemplified by Table 2, the sort to use is the mean
(or more strictly the â€˜arithmetic meanâ€™) For a set of measurements, this is de
Many problems are best studied by working with real functions, and the properties of real functions are often revealed most clearly by their graphs. Learning to sketch such graphs is therefore a useful skill, even though computer packages can now perform the task. Computers can plot many more points than can be plotted by hand, but simply â€˜joining up the dotsâ€™ can sometimes give a misleading picture, so an understanding of how such graphs may be obtained remains important. The object of t
4.2 Least upper and greatest lower bounds
We have seen that the set [0, 2) has no maximum element. However, [0, 2) has many upper bounds, for example, 2, 3, 3.5 and 157.1. Among all these upper bounds, the number 2 is the least upper bound because any number less than 2 is not an upper bound of [0, 2).
2.3 Inequalities involving modulus signs
Now we consider inequalities involving the modulus of a real number. Recall that if a , then its modulus, or abso
The set of natural numbers is
the set of integers is
and the set of rational numbers is
Author(s):
Despite the list of advantages given, here is a word of warning: a calculator is not a substitute for a brain! Even when you are using your calculator, you will still need to sort out what calculation to do to get the answer to a particular problem. However skilled you are at using your calculator, if you do the wrong sum, you will get the wrong answer. The phrase â€˜garbage in, garbage outâ€™ applies just as much to calculators as to computers. Your calculator is just that â€“ a calculator!<
The calculator is very useful for ordinary arithmetic and yet it can also perform many functions commonly associated with a computer and deal with quite advanced mathematics. It is useful for both beginners and experts alike, because it has a variety of modes of operation.
The calculator retains numbers, formulas and programs which you have stored in it, even when it is turned off. You can recall them when you need them and so save time by not having to enter the same information again.
The calculator does not make mistakes in the way that human brains tend to. Human fingers do, however, make mistakes sometimes; and the calculator may not be doing what you think you have told it to do. So correcting errors and estimating the approximate size of answers are important skills in doublechecking your calculator calculations. (Just as they are for checking calculations done in your head or on paper!)