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4 What is a ‘nation’?

Guibernau (1996, p. 47) has defined the nation as: ‘a human group conscious of forming a community, sharing a common culture, attached to a clearly demarcated territory, having a common past and a common project for the future and claiming the right to rule itself’. So awareness, territory, history and culture, language and religion all matter. However, it is rare in the real world to find a case of a nation with a clear-cut and homogenous character in terms of this list of possibilities.
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Coöperatief leren : Dossier
1.jpg

Leraar24 ontsluit video's en dossiers voor de onderwijspraktijk. Dit dossier richt zich hoofdzakelijk op coöperatieve werkvormen en biedt daarvoor zeven sleutels aan:

  1. Didactische structuren
  2. Teams
  3. Klasmanagement
  4. Klasbouwers

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Class Room Instructions for ADHD
Class Room Instructions for ADHD. Part of the series: How to Tell if Your Child Has ADHD. Learn about class room instructions for ADHD in this children's health video.
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5.3.2 Productivity difference

The preceding discussion has only considered what would happen if all women undertake less investment in human capital than men. If men and women invest to the same extent, human capital theory suggests that no wage differences would be observed. What happens, however, if there are differences in skill levels both between genders and within gender groups? To consider this we will also make the additional assumption that firms do not know when recruiting workers who are the most productive. Ho
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Objectives for Section 2

After studying this section you should be able to do the following.

  • Recognise and use the terminology: real number; set; element or member of a set; empty set; length of a sequence; empty sequence, ordered pair, n-tuple, Cartesian product.

  • Appreciate that use of precise notation such as the use of different types of bracket conveys important information when using formal notation. For example, square brackets [ and ] d
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2.6 Associations: tuples and Cartesian products

Consider an item of shopping that is weighed at the supermarket checkout, such as 335 grams of walnuts. This item of shopping has two features: the type of item purchased (walnuts), and the weight of that item (335 grams). To record a weighed item of shopping we need to note both these features. This can be done using an ordered pair: (“WALNUTS”, 335).

The first item in this ordered pair gives the type of item purchased. Let WeighedItems be the set of items stocked by the sup
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8.1 Introduction

Study note: You may like to have the Numeracy Resource to hand as you study Section 15. It offers extra practice with the logic operations, and you may find this useful.

Please click on the 'View document' link below to read the Numeracy Resource.


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2.2 Representing numbers: positive integers

A very straightforward way of finding binary codes to represent positive integers is simply to use the binary number that corresponds to each integer. This is because every positive integer in the everyday number system (known as the decimal or denary system because it uses 10 different digits) has a corresponding number in the binary number system.

As you will see later, in Section 7 of this unit, just as arithmetic (addition, subtraction, etc.) can be performed on everyday denary numb
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16.7 A loyalty card scheme

Supermarkets, and other types of retailer, use loyalty cards to encourage customers to use their particular shops. Points are awarded when a customer spends money in the shop. Supermarkets ‘reward’ their customers by converting loyalty card points into vouchers. They may also give them discount vouchers for a range of products.

Supermarkets use their loyalty card schemes to collect data about their customers. Data about each customer is held in a large database where each customer i
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2.3 Styles of presentation

One commodity that is dispensed in vast amounts both by central and local government is information, and so this is one of the more obvious candidates for electronic delivery. Online government services are typically approached via a portal site, which is a kind of entry site from which other sites can be reached. The websites of large organisations, such as Microsoft, the BBC and the Open University, are usually portals.

Going into a portal site is a bit like going into a large
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Introduction

This unit is from our archive and it is an adapted extract from Networked living: exploring information and communication technologies (T175) which is no longer in presentation. If you wish to study formally at The Open University, you may wish to explore the courses we offer in this curriculum area.

Many governments across the world are moving towards the use of infor
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Introduction

Why is the way something looks important? Text, colour, images, moving images and sound all interact to produce a user friendly environment within a user interface. This unit will help you understand the effect each software component has on the user and explain how a consistent and thoughtful application of these components can have a significant impact on the ‘look’ of final product.

This unit is from our archive and is an adapted extract from User interface design and evaluation
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5.4.2 The Statement of Applicability

The composition of the Statement of Applicability of the ISMS is Stage 8 of the ISMS planning process.

Activity 16

Read the section of Chapter 6 of the Set Book entitled ‘Selection of controls and statement of applicability’
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3.2.4. Ethics

The Turnbull Report, and a series of other codes relating to corporate governance, highlight some of the ethical principles which guide managers in the public and private sectors. In many cases, such codes are produced only after crises have occurred. Much legislation comes about in the same way. Information security management also has an ethical aspect, not least because of the need to apply the ethical spirit of laws and codes of conduct in new and unfamiliar circumstances.

The Orga
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3.2 What do we mean by patches?

Microsoft Windows is an example of an operating system (OS). These operating systems contain millions of lines of code, and inevitably there will be some errors in that code. Some malware writers set out to find these errors, or holes, in the code and exploit them to their own benefit. Whenever holes are found (by IT security people or groups, malware writers or the software developer) the operating system manufacturer will issue a fix for the particular problem. These fixes are referred to a
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3.3 Wired network configurations

Network nodes can be connected together in different arrangements known as topologies. We are going to describe four common topologies that you may come across.

Figure 10

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6 A look to the future

So what will computers do for you next? Perhaps they will be the key to solving transport problems. Driverless cars, controlled by computers, are under development. If these ever come to fruition perhaps they could help to reduce the number of road traffic accidents by automatically reducing their speed when they come too close to another car. Or perhaps journeys could be made faster and less frustrating because cars will use communicating computers to analyse traffic density and move along t
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2.3 Computer systems

So far, I have introduced the major components of a computer, namely a processor along with input and output devices, plus main and secondary memory. I now want to explore three of these components a little further, starting with input devices.

Input devices have to collect some information from outside the computer and present it to the computer as data which is in a form the processor can work with. (Strictly speaking, ‘data’ is the plural of the Latin word ‘datum’. But in the
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Introduction

There is more to computers and processors than simply PCs. In fact computers are ubiquitous in everyday life. This unit challenges how we view computers through the examples of processors in kitchen scales and digital cameras, as well as a work of art that, at heart, is a computer.

This unit is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Computers and processors (T224) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to study formally with us, you may wish to explore ot
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7 What's going on with online shopping

Most e-commerce sites are designed to mimic as far as possible the process of shopping in real life – find store, locate goods, go to checkout, pay. The only difference is that you cannot take the goods away with you, but have to wait for them to be delivered by post or courier. (Even then, there are parallels in real life – for example, when I buy a washing machine or a fridge from a department store, I do not expect to take it home with me; instead I pay and make arrangements to have th
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